Cultural Institutions as a Combat Sport. Reflections on the European Roma Institute
This article aims at problematizing the relation between identity recognition, economic redistribution, and political representation in the debate around Roma inclusion in contemporary Europe. Given that culture has increasingly become politicized, by analyzing the emergence of the European Roma Institute for Arts and Culture I reflect on the political and economic potential and drawbacks that cultural identity holds in a European society in which capitalism has turned into a cultural trait.
ANDERSON, E. (2010). The Imperative of Integration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
ANDERSON, E. (2015, April 23). "What’s Wrong With Inequality?" New York Times. Retrieved from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/23/inequalities-we-can-live-with/?_r=0
BÍRÓ, A., GHEORGHE, N., & KOVATS, M. (2013). From victimhood to citizenship. The Path of Roma Integration. (W. Guy, Ed.). Budapest: Pakiv European Roma Fund.
BOURDIEU, P. (1987). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Boston: Harvard University Press.
BUNESCU, I. (2014). Roma in Europe: The Politics of Collective Identity Formation. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
CIANETTI, L. (2016). "Minority Integration between (Mis)Recognition and (Mal)Distribution in Contemporary Europe", In IPSA - Politics in a World of Inequality (p. 26). http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES. (1970). Europeans and European Unification. The results of a survey study conducted in February-March 1970 in the six countries of the European Community.
COUNCIL OF EUROPE. (1993). Gypsies in Europe (Recommendation 1203, Parliamentary Assembly, 1993)
COUNCIL OF EUROPE. (2002). The Legal situation of the Roma in Europe (Recommendation 1557, Parliamentary Assembly, 2002)
COUNCIL OF EUROPE. (2014).Towards the creation of a “European Roma Institute” Consultation document prepared by the Council of Europe Secretariat
COUNCIL OF EUROPE. (2015). ERI will spread understanding of Roma culture and challenge stereotypes. Retrieved January 30, 2016, from http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/-/secretary-general-jagland-european-roma-institute-will-spread-understanding-of-roma-culture-and-challenge-stereotypes
DALY, M. (2006). Social Exclusion as Concept and Policy Template in the European Union (Working Paper Series No. 135). Belfast.
DOYTCHEVA, M. (2015). "Roms et Tsiganes en Europe méditerranéenne: l’actualité d’une question". Confluences Méditerranée, 93(2), pp. 9–26.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. (2000)."Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin". Official Journal of the European Communities, pp. 22–26
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. (2010). Roma in Europe: The Implementation of European Union Instruments and Policies for Roma Inclusion – Progress Report 2008-2010. Brussels.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. (2011). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee of Regions. An EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0173
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. (2012). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee of the Regions. National Roma Integration Strategies: a first step in the implementation of the EU Framework. Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52012DC0226
EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG EMPL. (2004). The situation of Roma in an enlarged European Union.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG JUST. (2012). Special Eurobarometer 393: Discrimination in the EU in 2012, (November), p. 238. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/index_en.htm
EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG JUST. (2015). Discrimination in the EU in 2015.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION DG JUST. (2016). Tackling discrimination legislation. Retrieved January 28, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/law/index_en.htm#h2-9
EUROPEAN ROMA AND TRAVELLERS FORUM. (2015). "The views on the European Roma and Travellers Forum on the “revised concept paper on the creation of a European Roma Institute.” ERTF Statement on ERI. Strasbourg. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
EUROPEAN UNION AGENCY FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS. (2011). EU-MIDIS Technical Report. Methodology, Sampling and Fieldwork.
EUROPEAN UNION AGENCY FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS. (2016). Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma – Selected findings.
EUROPEAN UNION AGENCY FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS - UNDP. (2012). The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States.
FOSZTÓ, L. (2015). A Chronology: Plans for a European Roma Institute. Retrieved from http://romanistudies.eu/news/eri-chronology/
FRASER, N. (2000). "Rethinking Recognition". New Left Review, 3(June), 1–8. http://doi.org/Article
FRASER, N. (2005). "Reframing Justice in a Globalizing World". New Left Review, 36(Nov Dec 2005), pp. 69–88.
FRIEDMAN, E., SURDU, MIHAI AND KOVATS, M., MARUSHIAKOVA, ELENA AND POPOV, V., PAP, A., CHRISTIANAKIS, M., RADONIĆ, L., … HEMELSOET, ELIAS AND VAN PELT, P. (2015). Talking about Roma : Implications for Social Inclusion (Vol. 3). Cogitatio Press.
JACQUOT, S., & VITALE, T. (2014). "Law as weapon of the weak? A comparative analysis of legal mobilization by Roma and women’s groups at the European level". Journal of European Public Policy, 21(4), pp. 587–604. http://doi.org/10.1080/13501763.2014.887138
JAGLAND, T. (2014). State of democracy , human rights and the rule of law in Europe. Report by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
JÁROKÁ, L. (2008). European Parliament: Motion for a Resolutin.
JEANNOT, C., TOMC, S., & TOTOZANI, M. (2011). "Retour sur le débat autour de l’identité nationale en France: quelles places pour quelle(s) langue(s)?". Lidil, 44 (Langues, minor(is)ations et marginalisations), pp. 63–78.
KOVATS, M. (2001). "Problems of Intellectual and Policial Accountability in Respect of Emerging European Roma Policy". Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 2(1), p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.ecmi.de/fileadmin/downloads/publications/JEMIE/2001/Focus11-2001KovatsComment.pdf
KOVATS, M. (2012). "The EU’s Roma role". OpenDemocracy. Retrieved from https://www.opendemocracy.net/martin-kovats/eus-roma-role
LE MONDE. (2009a, October 25). "Besson relance le débat sur l’identité nationale". Le Monde. Paris.
LE MONDE. (2009b, December 16). "Identité, dégâts". Le Monde. Paris. Retrieved from http://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2009/12/16/identite-degats_1281368_3232.html?xtmc=identite_degats&xtcr=156
LITTOZ-MONNET, A. (2007). The European Union and Culture: between Economic Regulation and Cultural Policy (European P). Manchester: Manchester University Press.
MATRAS, Y. (2013). "Scholarship and the politics of Romani identity: strategic and conceptual issues". European Yearbook of Minority Issues, 10(1), pp. 211–247.
MATRAS, Y. (2015). "European Academic Network on Romani Studies: A balance sheet". EANRS, (April), pp. 1–10. Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/culture/romastudies/Default_en.asp
McGARRY, A. (2014). "Roma as a political identity: Exploring representations of Roma in Europe". Ethnicities, 14(6), pp. 756–774. http://doi.org/10.1177/1468796814542182
MOKRE, M. (2013). "On the Culturalization of Inequality in Capitalist Democracies". EIPCP, pp. 2–5.
PSYCHOGIOPOULOU, E. (2006). "The Cultural Mainstreaming Clause of Article 151(4) EC: Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity or Hidden Cultural Agenda?". European Law Journal, 12(5), pp. 575–592. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0386.2006.00335.x
ROSSI, M. (2014). ERI Consultation. Consorzio Nazionale Delle Ricerche (CNR). http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
RUIZ VIEYTEZ, E. J. (2014). "Cultural diversities and Human Rights: History, Minorities, Pluralization". The Age of Human Rights Journal, 3(December), pp. 1–31.
RYDER, A., KOCZE, A., ROSTAS, I., DUNAJEVA, J.-E., BOGDA, M., TABA, M., … JUNGHAUS, T. (Eds.). (2015). "Nothing About Us Without Us ? Roma participation in policy making and knowledge production". Rights Journal of the European Roma Rights Centre, 2(Special Issue on Roma participation in policy making and knowledge production), p. 106.
SIGONA, N. (2011)."Neoliberalism, anti-Gypsyism and the EU’s dream deferred". Lignes, 34, pp. 1–6.
SOLIMENE, M. (2011). "“ These Romanians have ruined Italy ”. Xoraxané Romá , Romanian Roma and Rome". Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 16(5). http://doi.org/10.1080/1354571X.2011.622471
SOROS, G., & THORBJØRN, J. (2015). Why we are setting up a Roma European Institute. Retrieved from http://www.politico.eu/article/why-we-are-setting-up-a-european-roma-institute/
STOKES, B. (2015). Pew Research Center. Global Attitudes & Trends. Retrieved June 3, 2015, from http://www.pewglobal.org/2015/06/02/chapter-3-anti-minority-sentiment-not-rising/#roma-generate-greatest-anti-minority-sentiment
SURDU, M. (2016). Those Who Count: Expert Practices of Roma Classification. Budapest: CEU Press.
SURDU, M., & KOVATS, M. (2015). "Roma Identity as an Expert-Political" Construction. Social Inclusion, 3(5), pp. 5–18. http://doi.org/10.17645/si.v3i5.245
THE ALLIANCE FOR ERI, OPEN SOCIETY FOUNDATIONS, & THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE. European Roma Institute (2015). Retrieved from https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/european-roma-institute-concept-paper-20150515.pdf
THE GYPSY LORE SOCIETY. (2016). The Gypsy Lore Society. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from http://www.gypsyloresociety.org/home
TREMLETT, A. (2014). "Making a difference without creating a difference: Super-diversity as a new direction for research on Roma minorities". Ethnicities, 14(6), pp. 830–848. http://doi.org/10.1177/1468796814542183
TRETTER, E. (2011). "The “Value” of Europe: The Political Economy of Culture in the European Community". Geopolitics, 16(4), pp. 926–948. http://doi.org/10.1080/14650045.2011.554465
VAN BAAR, H. (2011). "Europe’s Romaphobia: problematization, securitization, nomadization". Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. http://doi.org/10.1068/d2902ed1
VAN BAAR, H. (2015). "The Perpetual Mobile Machine of Forced Mobility: Europe’s Roma and the Institutionalization of Rootlessness", In Y. JANSEN, J. de BLOOIS, & R. CELIKATES (Eds.), The Irregularization of Migration in Contemporary Europe: Deportation, Detention, Drowning, pp. 71–86. London / New York: Rowman & Littlefield.
VERMEERSCH, P. (2012). "Reframing the Roma: EU Initiatives and the Politics of Reinterpretation". Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 38(8), pp. 1195–1212. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2012.689175
VERMEERSCH, P. (2013). "The European Union and the Roma: an analysis of recent institutional and policy developments". European Yearbook of Minority Issues, (9), pp. 341–358.