A CRITIQUE OF THE DEMISE OF HEADS OF STATE IMMUNITY IN THE AGE OF HUMAN RIGHTS

SELMAN OZDAN

Abstract


This paper presents an unspoken aspect of Head of State immunity, namely that such immunity is at odds with the expectation that international law should be applied to challenge resistance to and promote respect for human rights. It considers the question of whether Head of State immunity gives rise to de facto impunity in the case of violations of human rights recognised as peremptory norms (jus cogens) committed by such Heads of State. While this paper emphasises the critical role of Head of State immunity in the context of international relations, it argues that Heads of State should not exempt from punishment when violations of those human rights are at stake.


Keywords


Head of State, immunity, impunity, human rights, peremptory norms

Full Text:

PDF

References


Books and Journals

Akande D, ‘The Legal Nature of Security Council Referrals to the ICC and Its Impact on Al Bashir’s Immunities’ (2009) 7 Journal of International Criminal Justice 333

Akande D and Shah S, ‘Immunities of State Officials, International Crimes, and Foreign Domestic Courts’ (2010) 21 European Journal of International Law 815

Brody R and Ratner M (eds), The Pinochet Papers: The Case of Augusto Pinochet Ugarte in Spain and Britain (Kluwer Law International 2000)

Cassese A, ‘When May Senior State Officials Be Tried for International Crimes? Some Comments on the Congo v. Belgium Case’ (2002) 13 European Journal of International Law 853

Criddle EJ and Fox-Decent E, ‘A Fiduciary Theory of Jus Cogens’ (2009) 34 Yale Journal of International Law 331

Cryer R and others, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure (2nd edn, Cambridge University Press 2010)

Fomerand J, Historical Dictionary of Human Rights (Rowman & Littlefield 2014)

Fox QC H and Webb P, The Law of State Immunity (3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2013)

Gaeta P, ‘Official Capacity and Immunities’ in Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta and John RWD Jones (eds), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, vol I (Oxford University Press 2002)

——, ‘Does President Al Bashir Enjoy Immunity from Arrest?’ (2009) 7 Journal of International Criminal Justice 315

Goldmann M, ‘Arrest Warrant Case (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium)’, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (MPEPIL) (Oxford University Press 2009)

Lauterpacht H, ‘The Problem of Jurisdictional Immunities of Foreign States’ (1951) 28 British Year Book of International Law 220

Minnerop P and others, World Court Digest 2001 - 2005, vol 4 (Springer Science & Business Media 2009)

Moghalu KC, ‘Reconciling Fractured Societies: An African Perspective on the Role of Judicial Prosecutions’ in Ramesh Chandra Thakur and Petrus Adrianus Maria Malcontent (eds), From Sovereign Impunity to International Accountability: The Search for Justice in a World of States (United Nations University Press 2004)

Morris M, ‘The Democratic Dilemma of the International Criminal Court’ (2002) 5 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 591

Needham J, ‘Protection or Prosecution for Omar Al Bashir? The Changing State of Immunity in International Criminal Law’ (2011) 17 Auckland University Law Review 219

Orakhelashvili A, ‘Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Belgium)’ (2002) 96 American Journal of International Law 677

Ozdan S, ‘Immunity vs. Impunity in International Law: A Human Rights Approach’ (2018) 4 Baku State University Law Review 36

Papillon S, ‘Has the United Nations Security Council Implicitly Removed Al Bashir’s Immunity?’ (2010) 10 International Criminal Law Review 275

Pierson C, ‘Pinochet and the End of Immunity: England’s House of Lords Holds That a Former Head of State Is Not Immune for Torture’ (2000) 14 Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 263

Solis GD, The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War (Cambridge University Press 2010)

Stern B, ‘Immunities for Heads of State: Where Do We Stand?’ in Mark Lattimer and Philippe Sands (eds), Justice for Crimes Against Humanity (Hart Publishing 2003)

Tunks M, ‘Diplomats or Defendants? Defining the Future of Head-of-State Immunity’ (2002) 52 Duke Law Journal 651

Watts SA, The Legal Position in International Law of Heads of States, Heads of Governments and Foreign Ministers, vol 247 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1994)

Wuerth I, ‘Pinochet’s Legacy Reassessed’ (2012) 106 The American Journal of International Law 731

Cases

Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of the Congo v Belgium) (2002) I.C.J. Reports

In re Grand Jury Proceedings [1987] United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit 700, 1108 817 F2d

Prosecutor v Tihomir Blaskic (1997) 110 ILR 687 (International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia)

R v Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate and Others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (No 1) (1998) 4 AII ER (House of Lords)

R v Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate and Others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (No 2) (1999) 2 W.L.R. 272 (House of Lords)

R v Bow Street Metropolitan Stipendiary Magistrate and Others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (No 3) (2000) 1 A.C. 147 (House of Lords)

The Prosecutor v Al Bashir, First Arrest Warrant (2009) ICC-02/05–01/09 (Pre-Trial Chamber I)

The Prosecutor v Al Bashir, Second Arrest Warrant (2010) ICC-02/05-01/09-95 (Pre-Trial Chamber I)

The Prosecutor v Omar Al Bashir (2013) ICC-02/05-01/09-151 (Pre-Trial Chamber II)

The Prosecutor v Omar Al Bashir (2015) ICC-02/05-01/09-242 (Pre-Trial Chamber II)

Yousuf v Samantar (2012) 699 F 3d 763 (Court of Appeals, 4th Circuit)

United Nations and Other Official Documents

Belgium: Act of 1999 Concerning the Punishment of Grave Breaches of International Humanitarian Law 1999

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations (United Nations Treaty Series 1948) 78

International Military Tribunal for the Far East Charter (1946)

Kolodkin RA, ‘Second Report on Immunity of State Officials from Foreign Criminal Jurisdiction, 62nd Session’ (International Law Commission 2010) UN Doc. A/CN.4/631

Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1 - Charter of the International Military Tribunal

Peace Treaty of Versailles 1919

Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 5 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 12) at 11, U.N. Doc. A/1316

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (UN General Assembly 2002)

United Nations Commission on Human Rights, ‘The Administration of Justice and the Human Rights of Detainees, Question of the Impunity of Perpetrators of Human Rights Violations (Civil and Political) Revised Final Report Prepared by Mr. Joinet Pursuant to Sub-Commission Decision 1996/119’ (1997) UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1997/20/Rev.1

——, ‘Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Impunity - Report of the Independent Expert to Update the Set of Principles to Combat Impunity by Diane Orentlicher: Addendum - Updated Set of Principles for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights through Action to Combat Impunity’ (2005) E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1

UN Security Council, Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, SC res. 827, UN SCOR 48th sess., 3217th mtg. at 1-2 1993

Online Sources

Bashir-Watch accessed 05 July 2018

Establishment of an International Criminal Court: Overview (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, 1999)

accessed 05 July 2018




DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17561/tahrj.n11.6

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN 2340-9592

http://revistaselectronicas.ujaen.es/index.php/TAHRJ