Testimonies of Victims of Human Rights Violations as Primary Sources in the Reports by United Nations Bodies

  • Eloísa González Hidalgo Pedro Arrupe Human Rights Institute, University of Deusto
Keywords: international law, human rights, testimonies, victims, data generation

Abstract

Victims of crimes, victims of abuse of power and victims of gross and systematic human rights violations have had little relevance to international law. However, since 1985, international human rights law has taken an interest in them and has created four instruments, which establish different notions of victim, as well as a catalogue of rights. Since then, victims have become increasingly prominent in processes involved in seeking justice, truth and reparation. Recently, victim’s testimonies are used as one of the indicators, although not the only one, for measuring compliance and protection of human rights rules in the United Nations system.

References

ABREU and ABREU, J. C. (2009) ‘La Victimología la luz de los Derechos Humanos’, Prolegómenos. Derechos y Valores, XII (23), p. 99-111. https://doi.org/10.18359/prole.2498
BALL, P. and SPIRER, H. F. (2000) Making the Case. Investigating Large Scale Human Rights Violations Using Information Systems and Data Analysis. Washington, DC, USA: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Human Rights Program.
BÁRCENA, F. and MÉLICH, J. C. (2003) ‘La mirada excéntrica. Una educación desde la mirada de la víctimas’ in Mardones, J. M. and Reyes Mate, R. (Eds.) La ética ante las víctimas. Barcelona: Anthropos.
BELTRAN VERDES, E. (2015) Investigación de Violaciones de Derechos Humanos y Crímenes de Derecho Internacional [online]. Available at:http://www.derechoshumanos.unlp.edu.ar/assets/files/T%C3%A9cnicas%20de%20Investigaci%C3%B3n..pdf (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
BERISTAIN, C. and GONZÁLEZ HIDALGO, E. (2012) El oasis de la memoria, vol. II. Bilbao: Hegoa.
BERISTAIN, C. et al. (2018) Metodologías de investigación, búsqueda y atención a las víctimas. Del caso Ayotzinapa a nuevos mecanismos en la lucha contra la impunidad. Colombia: Editorial Temis. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt21kk17r
BURGORGUE-LARSEN, L. (2003) ‘Las víctimas del delito en el proceso penal internacional: el ejemplo de la corte penal internacional’ [online]. Available at: https://revistas.uam.es/revistajuridica/article/download/6159/6615 (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
CEREZO DOMÍNGUEZ, A. I. (2010) El protagonismo de las víctimas en la elaboración de las leyes penales. Sevilla: Instituto Andaluz Interuniversitario de Criminología.
COMISIÓN DE LA VERDAD Y LA RECONCILIACIÓN (2003) Informe Final [online]. Available at: www.cverdad.org.pe (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
COMISIÓN INTERAMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS (2009) Informe sobre seguridad ciudadana y derechos humanos [online]. Available at: https://www.oas.org/es/cidh/docs/pdfs/seguridad%20ciudadana%202009%20esp.pdf (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
CRUZ, LUIS M. (2010) ‘El derecho de reparación a las víctimas en el Derecho Internacional. Un estudio comparativo entre el derecho internacional de responsabilidad estatal y los principios básicos de reparación de víctimas de derechos humanos’, Revista de Derecho Político, no. 77, p. 185-209. https://doi.org/10.5944/rdp.77.2010.9108
DE CASADEVANTE ROMANÍ, C. (2009) ‘Las Víctimas y el Derecho Internacional’, A.E.D.I., vol. XXV, p. 3-66.
DÍAZ COLORADO, F. (2006) ‘Una mirada desde las víctimas: el surgimiento de la Victimología. Ensayo’, Umbral Científico, no. 9, p. 141-159.
DRAPIN, I. (1974), ‘El derecho de las víctimas’, Anuario de Derecho Penal y Ciencias Penales [online]. Available at:
http://blog.uclm.es/cienciaspenales/files/2016/11/1999_fasc_I_Parte1.pdf (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL Updated Set of principles for the protection and promotion of human rights through the fight against impunity. E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1. 8 February 2005 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/TruthJusticeReparation/Pages/InternationalInstruments.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION OF UNITED NATIONS Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. Resolution 2005/35. 19 April 2005 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/TruthJusticeReparation/Pages/InternationalInstruments.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
INTERNATIONAL CENTER OF TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE-APRODEH (2002) Parámetros para el diseño de un programa de reparaciones en el Perú. Lima: ICTJ.
LANDMAN, T. (2010) “Social science methods and human rights” in Coomans, F. et al Methods of human rights research. Maastricht: Intersentia, pp. 19-44.
MARCHIORI, H. (2016) ‘Los Derechos de las Vícitmas’, Víctimología, Serie 18, p. 159-170.
OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (2012). Guide for Human Rights Indicators for Measurement and Application. Geneva [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/TruthJusticeReparation/Pages/InternationalInstruments.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS A Call for Accountability and Protection: Yezidi Survivors of Atrocities Committed by ISIL. August 2016 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/IQ/UNAMIReport12Aug2016_en.pdf (Accessed: 30 October 2019).
RODRÍGUEZ MAESO, S. (2011) ‘Testimonios, discurso experto y comisiones de la verdad: el contexto de la denuncia’, Política y Sociedad, 48 (3), p. 587-602. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_POSO.2011.v48.n3.36422
SANZ HERMIDA, A. MA. (2009) Víctimas de delitos: derechos, protección y asistencia. Madrid: Iustel.
SMITH, S. and MCCONNELL, L. (2018) ‘Introduction to human rights research methods’ in Smith, S. and McConnell, L. Research methods in human rights. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315672632
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 13 December 2006 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CRPD/A.68.55-ENG.doc (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. Resolution 40/34, 29 November 1985 [online]. Available at:
https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.29_declaration%20victims%20crime%20and%20abuse%20of%20power.pdf (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. Resolution 47/133, 18 December 1992 [online]. Available at:
https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/enforceddisappearance.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY International Convention for the Protection of All Persons against Enforced Disappearances. Resolution 47/133, 20 December 2006 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/ced/pages/conventionced.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Resolution 2200A (XXI), 16 December 1966 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Resolution 2200A (XXI), 16 December 1966 [online]. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx (Accessed: 30 May 2019).
Published
2019-12-05
How to Cite
González Hidalgo, E. (2019). Testimonies of Victims of Human Rights Violations as Primary Sources in the Reports by United Nations Bodies. The Age of Human Rights Journal, (13), 44-62. https://doi.org/10.17561/tahrj.n13.3
Section
ARTICLES