Legal Philosophy and Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism. Debates on Morality, Unity, and Power

  • Constanza Núñez Donald University of Chile
Keywords: Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism, philosophy of international law, global constitutionalism, transnational law

Abstract

Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism is a specific proposal in the international legal debate, the goal of which is the application of constitutional principles at the global level to achieve the universal guarantee of human rights. The author proposes that if we want to respond to the question of whether this project is possible and desirable, we need to analyse whether this is a plausible proposal, considering the distinctive features of law in the transnational sphere. In this light, the principal aim of this work is to show the principal challenges that Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism presents for the classic debates of legal philosophy, considering the current conditions of the international sphere. In this paper, the three topics that are considered are the debates between morality and law, law and power, and law and unity. The topics are problematized from the perspective of two contemporary scholars of Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism: Luigi Ferrajoli and Jürgen Habermas.

Author Biography

Constanza Núñez Donald, University of Chile

Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism is a specific proposal in the international legal debate, the goal of which is the application of constitutional principles at the global level to achieve the universal guarantee of human rights. The author proposes that if we want to respond to the question of whether this project is possible and desirable, we need to analyse whether this is a plausible proposal, considering the distinctive features of law in the transnational sphere. In this light, the principal aim of this work is to show the principal challenges that Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism presents for the classic debates of legal philosophy, considering the current conditions of the international sphere. In this paper, the three topics that are considered are the debates between morality and law, law and power, and law and unity. The topics are problematized from the perspective of two contemporary scholars of Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism: Luigi Ferrajoli and Jürgen Habermas.

References

ANSUÁTEGUI ROIG, F. J. (2008). La dimensión expansiva del constitucionalismo. retos y exigencias. Estudios en homenaje al profesor Gregorio Peces-Barba (pp. 73-104). Madrid: Dykinson.

ANSUÁTEGUI, F. J. (2013a). Tensiones en el discurso sobre universalidad de los derechos. In Narciso Martínez, Ana María Marcos y Rafael Junquera (Coord). Derechos Humanos: Problemas actuales. Estudios en homenaje al profesor Benito de Castro Cid (pp. 253-267), Vol. I. Madrid: Universitas.

ANSUÁTEGUI, F. J. (2013b). La cuestión de la universalidad de los derechos: de las intuiciones a los problemas. In F.J Ansuátegui, J.M Rodríguez, G. Peces-Barba y E. Fernández (Coord). Historia de los derechos fundamentales, Vol. 4 Tomo IV (pp. 73-122) Madrid: Dykinson e Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas.

ARENDT, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

AVBELJ, M., & Komárek, J. (2012). Constitutional pluralism in the European Union and beyond. Oxford; Portland: Hart Publishing.

BAYNES, K. (2009). Discourse ethics and the political conception of human rights. Ethics & Global Politics, 2(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.3402/egp.v2i1.1938

BAYÓN, J. C. (2013). El constitucionalismo en la esfera pública global. Anuario de Filosofía del Derecho, (29), 57-99.

BENHABIB, S. (2006). Another cosmopolitanism: Hospitality, sovereignty, and democratic iterations (Berkeley Tanner lectures). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195183221.001.0001

BENHABIB, S. (2011). Dignity in adversity: Human rights in troubled times. Cambridge: Polity.

BENHABIB, S. (2016). The new sovereigntism and transnational law: Legal utopianism, democratic scepticism and statist realism. Global Constitutionalism, 5(1), 109-144. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045381716000010

BODANSKY, D. (2009). Is there an international environmental constitution? Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 16(2), 565-584. https://doi.org/10.2979/gls.2009.16.2.565

BROWN, G. (2012). The constitutionalization of what? Global Constitutionalism, 1(2), 201-228. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045381712000056

BROWN, G. W. (2013). Grounding cosmopolitanism: From Kant to the idea of a cosmopolitan constitution. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

BRUNNÉE, J. (2010). Legitimacy and legality in international law: An interactional account. Cambridge: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511781261

BRYDE, B. O. (2005), International Democratic Constitutionalism. In R. St. J. MacDonald y D. Johnston (Eds.) Towards world constitutionalism. Issues in the legal ordering of the world community. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

CATÁ BACKER, L. (2012). The structural characteristics of global law for the 21st century: fracture, fluidity, permeability, and polycentricity. Tilburg Law Review, 17(2), 177-199. https://doi.org/10.1163/22112596-01702006

COHEN, J. (2004). Minimalism about human rights: The most we can hope for? Journal of Political Philosophy, 12(2), 190-213. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9760.2004.00197.x

CORRADETTI, C. (2016). Judicial cosmopolitan authority. Transnational Legal Theory, 7(1), 29-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/20414005.2016.1192356

CORRADETTI, C. (2017). Thinking with Kant “beyond” Kant. Actualizing sovereignty and citizenship in the transnational sphere, Danish Yearbook of Philosophy, 50, 59-82. https://doi.org/10.1163/24689300-05001005

CORTÉS, F., & Piedrahita, F. (2011). De Westfalia a cosmopolis: Soberanía, ciudadanía, derechos humanos y justicia económica global. Bogotá: Siglo del Hombre Editores.

DIGGELMANN, O., & Altwicker, T. (2008). Is there something like a constitution of international law?. Zeitschrift Für Ausländisches Öffentliches Recht Und Völkerrecht, 68, 623-650.

FARIÑAS DULCE, M. J. (2012). Globalización y cultura de la legalidad. Eunomía: Revista en Cultura de la legalidad, (2), 109-114.

FASSBENDER, B. (1998). The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the international community. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 36(3), 529-619.

FERRAJOLI, L. (1998). Más allá de la soberanía y la ciudadanía: Un constitucionalismo global. Isonomía: Revista de teoría y filosofía del Derecho, (9), 173-184.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2004). Razones jurídicas del pacifismo. Madrid: Editorial Trotta.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2008). Democracia y garantismo. Ed. Miguel Carbonell. Madrid: Trotta.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2009). Derechos fundamentales. In A. de Cabo y G. Pisarello (Eds.) Los fundamentos de los derechos fundamentales (pp. 56). Madrid: Trotta.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2011). Principia Iuris: teoría del derecho y la democracia. Vol. II. Madrid: Trotta.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2018a). Constitucionalismo más allá del Estado. Madrid: Trotta, 2018.

FERRAJOLI, L. (2018b). La lógica del Derecho. Diez aporías en la obra de Hans Kelsen. Madrid: Trotta.

FLYNN, J. (2003). Habermas on human rights: Law, morality, and intercultural dialogue. Social Theory and Practice, 29(3), 431. https://doi.org/10.5840/soctheorpract200329320

FORST, R. (1999). The Basic Right to Justification: Towards a Constructivist Conception of Human Rights. Constellations, 6(1), 35-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.00119

FORST, R. (2010). The justification of human rights and the basic right to justification: A reflexive approach. Ethics, 120(4), 711-740. https://doi.org/10.1086/653434

FRASER, N. (2008). Scales of justice. Reimagining political space in a globalizing world. Cambridge: Polity Press.

GARCÍA PASCUAL, C. (2018). La naturaleza del derecho internacional: Una cuestión existencial. Anuario de Filosofía del Derecho, (34), 149-175.

GÜNTHER, K. (2008). Legal pluralism or uniform concept of law? Globalization as a problem of legal theory. No Foundations: Journal of Extreme Legal Positivism, 5, 5-21.

HABERMAS, J. (1996). Between facts and norms: Contributions to a discourse theory of law and democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/1564.001.0001

HABERMAS, J. (1997). Kant's idea of perpetual peace with the benefit of two hundred years' hindsight. In J. Bohman, & M. Lutz-Bachmann (Eds.), Perpetual peace: Essays on Kant's cosmopolitan ideal (pp. 113-153). London: The MIT Press.

HABERMAS, J. (1998). The inclusion of the other. Studies in political theory. Cambridge: Polity Press.

HABERMAS, J. (2006). Does the constitutionalization of the international law still have a chance?. The divided west (pp. 115-193). Cambridge: Polity Press.

HABERMAS, J. (2008). The constitutionalization of international law and the legitimation problems of a constitution for world society. Constellations, 15(4), 444-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8675.2008.00510.x

HABERMAS, J. (2010). The concept of human dignity and the realistic utopia of human rights. Metaphilosophy, 41(4), 464-480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9973.2010.01648.x

HABERMAS, J. (2012). The crisis of the European union in the light of a constitutionalization of international law. European Journal of International Law, 23(2), 335-348. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chs019

HABERMAS, J. (2013a). A political constitution for the pluralist world society? Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 40, 226-238. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6253.12074

HABERMAS, J. (2013b). Discourse Theory and International Law: An Interview with Jürgen Habermas by Armin von Bogdandy. https://verfassungsblog.de/discourse-theory-and-international-law-an-interview-with-jurgen-habermas/

HABERMAS, J. (2014). Plea for a constitutionalization of international law. Philosophy & Social Criticism, 40(1), 5-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453713514838

HABERMAS, J. (2015). The lure of technocracy. Cambridge: Polity.

HATHAWAY, O., & Shapiro, S. (2011). Outcasting: Enforcement in Domestic and International Law. The Yale Law Journal, 121(2), 252-349.

IGNATIEFF, M. (2001). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400842841

KLABBERS, J. (2009a). Setting the scene. In A. Peters, G. Ulfstein & J. Klabers (Eds.), The constitutionalization of international law (pp. 1-44). Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press.

KLABBERS, J. (2009b). Law-making and Constitutionalism. In A. Peters, G. Ulfstein & J. Klabers (Eds.), The constitutionalization of international law (pp. 81-125). Oxford; New York : Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199543427.003.0003

KLEINLEIN, T. (2012a). Alfred Verdross as a founding father of international constitutionalism?. Goettingen Journal of International Law 4 (2), 385-416.

KLEINLEIN, T. (2012b). Between myths and norms: Constructivist constitutionalism and the potential of constitutional principles in international law. Nordic Journal of International Law, 81, 79-132. https://doi.org/10.1163/157181012X638052

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2005). From apology to Utopia: The structure of international legal argument. Cambridge: : Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511493713

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2006). Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties arising from the diversification and expansion of International Law. Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission, April 13’ 2006, http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_l682.pdf

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2007a). Constitutionalism as Mindset: Reflections on Kantian Themes About International Law and Globalization. Theoretical Inquiries in Law, 8(1), 9-36. https://doi.org/10.2202/1565-3404.1141

KOSKENNIEMI, M. (2007b). The fate of public international law: Between technique and politics. Modern Law review, 70(1), 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2006.00624.x

KRISCH, N. (2011). Who is afraid of radical pluralism? legal order and political stability in the postnational space. Ratio Juris, 24(4), 386-412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9337.2011.00492.x

KUMM, M. (2004). The legitimacy of international law: A constitutionalist framework of analysis. European Journal of International Law, 15(5), 907-932. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/15.5.907

KUMM, M. (2009). The cosmopolitan turn in constitutionalism: On the relationship between constitutionalism in and beyond the state. In D. Dunoff, & J. P. Trachtmann (Eds.), Ruling the world? constitutionalism, international law and global governance (pp. 258-324). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627088.011

KUMM, M. (2012). Rethinking constitutional authority: On the structure and limits of constitutional pluralism. In M. Avbelj, & J. Komárek (Eds.), Constitutional pluralism in the European Union and beyond (pp. 39-65). Oxford; Portland: Hart Publishing.

KUMM, M. (2013). The cosmopolitan turn in constitutionalism: An integrated conception of public law. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 20(2), 605-628. https://doi.org/10.2979/indjglolegstu.20.2.605

KUMM, M., Lang, A., Tully, J., & Wiener, A. (2014). How large is the world of global constitutionalism? Global Constitutionalism, 3(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S204538171400001X

KUMM, M. (2016). Constituent power, boundaries and identity: On the justificatory depth of constitutionalism - A rejoinder to Neil Walker. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 14(4), 914-924. https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mow070

LANG, A., & Wiener, A. (2017). A constitutionalizing global order: An introduction. In A. Lang, & A. Wiener (Eds.), Handbook of global constitutionalism (pp. 1-20). Cheltenham: Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783477357.00006

LA TORRE, M. (2016). El Brexit y la miseria del constitucionalismo global. El Cronista del Estado social y democrático de Derecho, (64), 4-11.

LAPORTA, F. J. (2014). Gobernanza y soft law: Nuevos perfiles jurídicos de la sociedad internacional. In A. Ruiz Miguel (Ed.), Entre Estado y Cosmópolis: Derecho y justicia en un mundo global (pp. 41-81). Madrid: Trotta.

LOSANO, M. (2005). Derecho turbulento: En busca de nuevos paradigmas en las relaciones entre derechos nacionales y normativas supraestatales. Doxa: Cuadernos de Filosofía del Derecho, (28), 159-182. https://doi.org/10.14198/DOXA2005.28.13

MACDONALD, R., & Johnston, D. M. (2005). Towards world constitutionalism: Issues in the legal ordering of the world community. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

MAZZARESE, T. (2004). ¿Está la era de los derechos cambiando? Anuario De Derechos Humanos, (5), 655-688.

NEVES, M. (2013). Transconstitutionalism. Oxford; Portland: Hart Publishing.

NEVES, M. (2017). From Constitutionalism to Transconstitutionalism. In P. Blokker & C. Thornhill (Eds.), Sociological Constitutionalism (pp. 267-312). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316403808.009

NICKEL, R. (2015). Interlegalidad. Eunomía: Revista en Cultura de la legalidad, (8), 205-211.

PALOMBELLA, G. & Klabbers, J. (2019). The challenge of inter-legality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108609654

PALOMBELLA, G. (2019). Theory, realities and promises of inter-legality . In G. Palombella, & J. Klabbers (Eds.), The challenge of inter-legality (pp. 363-389). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108609654.016

PERNICE, I. (2012) La dimensión global del constitucionalismo multinivel. Una respuesta global a los desafíos de la globalización. Documento de trabajo Nº61. Madrid: CEU Ediciones.

PETERS, A., & Armigeon, K. (2009). Introduction. Global constitutionalism from an interdisciplinary perspective. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 16(2), 385-395. https://doi.org/10.2979/gls.2009.16.2.385

PETERS, A. (2006). Compensatory constitutionalism: The function and potential of fundamental international norms and structures. Leiden Journal of International Law, 19(3), 579-610. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0922156506003487

PETERS, A. (2009a). The merits of global constitutionalism. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 16(2), 397-411. https://doi.org/10.2979/gls.2009.16.2.397

PETERS, A. (2009b). Membership in the global constitutional community. In Jan Klabbers, Anne Peters & Geir Ulfstein (Eds.), The constitutionalization of international law (pp. 153-179). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PETERSMANN, E. (2013a). Global Constitutional Law? Why Cosmopolitan “Aggregate Public Goods” must be protected by cosmopolitan conceptions of international law. In M. C. Bassiouni, G. Joanna, P. Mengozzi (Eds). The Global Community yearbook of international law and jurisprudence: global trends: law, policy & justice essays in honour of Professor Giuliana Ziccardi Capaldo. Oxford Scholarship online, dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199332304.003.0025.

PETERSMANN, E. (2013b). Human rights require ‘cosmopolitan constitutionalism’ and cosmopolitan law for democratic governance of public goods. EUI Working Paper LAW 2013/04, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2293944

PETERSMANN, E. (2017). Constitutional Constructivism for a Common Law of Humanity? Multilevel Constitutionalism as a Gentle Civiliser of Nations, MPIL Research Paper SeriesNo. 2017-24, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3054442

POSNER, E. (2014). The twilight of human rights law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PUPPO, A. (2015). Constitucionalismo global y excepción internacional: Una mirada escéptica a Principia Iuris de Luigi Ferrajoli. Cuadernos Electrónicos de Filosofía del Derecho, (31), 16-39.

RODRIGO, A. J. (2013). El pluralismo del constitucionalismo internacional. Anuario Español De Derecho Internacional, (29), 61-109.

RODRIGO, A. J. (2014). El pluralismo radical del constitucionalismo societal: La fragmentación constitucional. Revista electrónica de Estudios Internacionales, (27), 1-16.

ROUGHAN, N. (2013). Authorities: Conflicts, Cooperation, and Transnational Legal Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199671410.001.0001

SCHIFF Berman, P. (2016), The evolution of global legal pluralism, In Authority in Transnational Legal Theory, (pp. 151-188). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784711627.00013

SCHWÖBEL, C. (2011). Global constitutionalism in international legal perspective. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004191150.i-205

SIMMONS, B. (2009). Mobilizing for human rights: International law in domestic politics. Cambridge ; New York: : Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511811340

SIMMONS, B. (2012). Reflections on mobilizing for human rights. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 44(3), 729-750.

SOMEK, A. (2012). Monism: A tale of the undead. In M. Avbelj, & J. Komárek (Eds.), Constitutional pluralism in the European Union and beyond (pp. 343-379). Oxford; Portland: Hart Publishing.

STONE Sweet, Ryan, & Ryan, Clare‏. (2018). A cosmopolitan legal order: Kant, Constitutional justice, and the European Convention on Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198825340.001.0001

TAEKEMA, S. (2019). Between or Beyond Legal Orders: Questioning the Concept of Legal Order. In J. Klabbers & G. Palombella (Eds.), The Challenge of Inter-Legality (ASIL Studies in International Legal Theory, pp. 69-88). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108609654.004

TURÉGANO, I. (2017). Derecho transnacional o la necesidad de superar el monismo y el dualismo en la teoría jurídica. Derecho PUCP: Revista de la Facultad de Derecho, (79), 223-265. https://doi.org/10.18800/derechopucp.201702.010

TUORI, K. (2015). Transnational law. on legal hybrids and perspectivism . In M. Maduro, K. Tuori & S. Sankari (Eds.), Transnational law. rethinking european law and legal thinking (pp. 11-57). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

TWINING, W. (2005). Globalisation and legal theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

VELASCO, J. C. (2000). La teoría discursiva del derecho: Sistema jurídico y democracia en Habermas. Madrid: Boletín Oficial del Estado-Centro de Estudios Constitucionales.

VERDROSS, A. (1964). Völkerrecht, 5ª ed. Wien: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-7683-2

WALKER, N. (2005). Making a world of difference? Habermas, cosmopolitanism and the constitutionalization of international law. European University Working Paper 2005/17, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.891036

WALKER, N. (2008). Beyond boundary disputes and basic grids: Mapping the global disorder of normative orders. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 6(3-4), 373-396. https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mon016

WET, E. D. (2006). The international constitutional order. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 55(1), 51-76. https://doi.org/10.1093/iclq/lei067

WIENER, A., Lang, A., Tully (2012). Global constitutionalism: Human rights, democracy and the rule of law. Global Constitutionalism, 1(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045381711000098

ZOLO, D. (2005). Los señores de la paz : Una crítica del globalismo jurídico. Madrid: Dykinson e Instituto de Derechos Humanos “Bartolomé de las Casas”.

Published
2020-06-15
How to Cite
Núñez Donald, C. (2020). Legal Philosophy and Cosmopolitan Constitutionalism. Debates on Morality, Unity, and Power. The Age of Human Rights Journal, (14), 77-107. https://doi.org/10.17561/tahrj.v14.5479
Section
ARTICLES