A Comparative Analysis on International Refugee Law and Temporary Protection in the Context of Turkey
Keywords:Turkish Law on Foreigners and International Protection, Turkey’s asylum system, Turkish temporary protection regime, Syrian asylum seekers in Turkey, International protection
The Syrian civil war prompted a large number of people to flee their country and seek asylum in other countries, making Turkey a leading host country with around 3.6 million of asylum seekers. Syrian asylum seekers in Turkey are under temporary protection regime. This article examines Turkish temporary protection regime in comparison with international protection standards and human rights law, especially with the UNHCR Guideline and European Union legislation on temporary protection and European Court on Human Rights judgements. In this respect, this article argues that Turkish legislation has met the fundamental requirements of international protection law and standards, however, still needs to be improved in some crucial areas. In this regard, the international protection law and the difference between the status of refugee and temporary protection is explored. Subsequently, declaration of temporary protection in case of a mass-influx, the rights and freedoms covered under temporary protection, non-refoulement principle and termination of temporary protection regime under Turkish Temporary Protection Regulation are discussed and compared with the international standards. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations for the improvement are deduced from this discussion.
ACIKGOZ, M. & ANIKER, H.O. (2014). Turkey’s new law on foreigners and international protection: An introduction. Briefing Paper, no 2. Oxford: Turkish Migration Study Groups. [online]. Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/2014/turkeys-new-law-on-foreigners [Accessed: 17 November 2020].
AGAMBEN, G. (1998). Homo Sacer – Sovereign Power and Bare Life. Aundt: Meridian
AKCICEK, A. (2015). “Turkiye'de Suriyelilerin Toplumsal ve Ekonomik Uyumu”. Liberal Düşünce (80) 51-61.
ALLAIN, J. (2001). “The Jus cogens Nature of Non-Refoulement”. International Journal of Refugee Law, 13(4), pp. 533-58. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijrl/13.4.533
ARENDT, H. (1976). The origins of totalitarianism. San Diego: Harvest Books.
ASYLUM INFORMATION DATABASE [AIDA] (2020, January 17). Content of International Protection-Turkey. [online]. Available at:https://www.asylumineurope.org/reports/country/turkey/content-international-protection [Accessed: 17 November 2020].
ATES, H. and BEKTAS, M. (2016). “Suriyelilerin Toplumsal, Kültürel ve Ekonomik Entegrasyonu”. Y. Deniz and F. Bilgin (Eds), Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Sempozyumu (26-27 Ekim 2016) (pp. 17-43). Bursa: TESAM.
BLACK, R. (2001). Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality. [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/research/working/3ae6a0d00/environmental-refugees-myth-reality-richard-black.html [Accessed: 21 November 2020].
BRUIN, R., & WOUTERS, K. (2003). “Terrorism and the Non-derogability of Non-refoulement”. IJRL, 15(1), pp. 5 - 29. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijrl/15.1.5
CHIMNI, B. (2000). Globalisation, humanitarianism and the erosion of refugee protection. Working Paper, no 3, Refugee Studies Center: Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/13.3.243
COSTELLO, C. & FOSTER, M. (2016). “Non-refoulement as Custom and Jus Cogens? Putting the Prohibition to the Test”. In Heijer M., van der Wilt H. (eds) Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, vol 46. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. 273-327. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-114-2_10
DALKIRAN. M. (2016). Law on Foreigners and International Protection: A Real Shift in Turkey’s Migration Policy, Expert Brief Regional Politics. Istanbul: AlSharq Forum. [online]. Available at: https://www.sharqforum.org/2016/05/31/law-on-foreigners-and-international-protection-a-real-shift-in-turkeys-migration-policy [Accessed: 27 November 2020].
DARDAGAN KIBAR, E. (2013). “An Overview and Discussion of the New Turkish Law on Foreigners and International Protection”. Perceptions Journal of International Affairs 18(3), pp. 109-128.
DELEGATION OF THE EUPEAN UNION TO TURKEY [DEUT] (2021). The EU Response to the Refugee Crisis in Turkey. Available at: https://www.avrupa.info.tr/en/eu-response-refugee-crisis-turkey-710 [Accessed 19 March 2021].
DEUTSCHE WELL [DW] (2021). “Türkiye'de iki ayrı hayat yaşıyorlar”. Available at: https://www.dw.com/tr/t%C3%BCrkiyede-iki-ayr%C4%B1-hayat-ya%C5%9F%C4%B1yorlar/a-41837359 (Accessed 19 March 2021).
DUGARD, J. & VAN DEN WYNGAERT, C. (1998). “Reconciling Extradition with Human Rights”. AJIL, 92(2), pp. 187 - 212. https://doi.org/10.2307/2998029
EDWARDS, A. (2012). “Temporary protection, derogation and the 1951 Refugee Convention”. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 13(2) 595-635.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION [EC] (2013a). “Common European Asylum System”. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/asylum_en [Accessed 18 March 2021].
EUROPEAN COMMISSION [EC] (2013b). “Turkey 2013 Progress Report”. COM(2013) 700 final. 16.10.2013. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/default/files/pdf/key_documents/2013/package/tr_rapport_2013_en.pdf [Accessed 18 March 2021].
EUROPEAN UNION [EU] (2020). Handbook on European Law Relating to Asylum, Borders and Immigration. Luxembourg: EU. Available at: https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Handbook_asylum_ENG.pdf [Accessed 19 March 2021].
FITZPATRICK, J. (2000). “Temporary protection of refugees: Elements of a formalized regime”. American Journal of International Law, 94(2), pp. 279-306. https://doi.org/10.2307/2555293
FITZPATRICK, J. & BONOAN, R. (2003). “Cessation of Refugee Protection”. In E. Feller, V. Türk, & F. Nicholson (Eds.), Refugee Protection in International Law: UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection (pp. 491-544). Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511493973.026
GOODWIN-GILL, G. & MCADAM, J. (2007). The Refugee in International Law. Oxford: OUP.
HATHAWAY, J. (2001). “Temporary protection of refugees: Threat or solution”. In J. Handmaker, & et. al. (Eds.), Perspective on Refugee Protection in South Africa (pp. 41-49). Pretoria: Lawyers for Human Rights.
HATHAWAY, J. (2005). The Rights of Refugees under International Law. Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511614859
INELI-CIGER, M. (2014). “Implications of the New Turkish Law on Foreigners and International Protection and Regulation no. 29153 on Temporary protection for Syrians Seeking Protection in Turkey”. Oxford Monitor of Forced Immigration, 4(2), pp. 28-36.
LAUTERPACHT, E. & BETHLEHEM, D. (2003). “The scope and content of the principle of non-refoulement: Opinion”. In E. Feller, V. Türk, & F. Nicholson (Eds.), Refugee Protection in International Law: UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection (pp. 87 - 177). Cambridge: CUP. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511493973.008
MANSOURI, F., LEACH, M., & NETHERY, A. (2009). “Temporary protection and the Refugee Convention in Australia, Denmark and Germany”. Refuge, 26(1), pp. 135-147. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.30615
ÖNDER, N. (2019). “Türkiye’de Geçici Koruma Altındaki Suriyelilere Yönelik Sağlık Politikalarının Analizi”. The Journal of Migration Studies, 5(1), pp. 110-165.
RIYANTO, S. (2010). “The Refoulement Principle and Its Relevance in the International Legal System”. Indonesian Journal of International Law, 7(4), pp. 695 - 715. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468018116666153
RYGIEL, K., BABAN, F. & SUZAN ILCAN (2016). “The Syrian Refugee Crisis: The EU-Turkey Deal and Temporary Protection”. Global Social Policy, 16(3), pp. 315-320. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468018116666153
SOYKAN, C. (2012). “The New Draft Law on Foreigners and International Protection in Turkey”. Oxford Monitor of Forced Migration, 2(2), pp. 38-47.
TURKISH DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF MIGRATION MANAGEMENT [TDGMM]. (2020). “Yillara gore Gecici Koruma Kapsamindaki Suriyeliler”. [online]. Available at: https://www.goc.gov.tr/gecici-koruma5638 [Accessed: 12 January 2021].
UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES [UNHCR] (1951). The refugee Convention, 1951 - the travaux préparatoires analysed by a commentary by Dr. Paul Weis. [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/protection/travaux/4ca34be29/refugee-convention-1951-travaux-preparatoires-analysed-commentary-dr-paul.html [Accessed: 17 August 2020].
UNHCR (1981). Protection of Asylum-Seekers in Situations of Large-Scale Influx No. 22 (XXXII) - 21 October 1981, No. 22 (XXXII). [online]. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68c6e10.html [Accessed: 17 August 2020].
UNHCR (2000). UNHCR Summary Observations on the Commission Proposal for a Council Directive on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx (COM(2000) 303, 24 May 2000), 15 September 2000. [online]. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/437c64b04.html [Accessed: 17 August 2020].
UNHCR (2011a). The 1951 Convention relating to the status of refugees and its 1967 Protocol. Geneva: UNHCR.
UNHCR (2011b). Summary of Deliberations on Climate Change and Displacement. [online]. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/4da2b5e19.html [Accessed: 28 August 2020].
UNHCR (2014). Guidelines on temporary protection or stay arrangements. [online]. Available at: https://cms.emergency.unhcr.org/documents/11982/44933/UNHCR,+Guidelines+on+Temporary+Protection+or+Stay+Arrangements,+2014/373af576-cd03-4134-9d49-e03a1add6a9e [Accessed: 17 December 2020].
UNHCR (2018). UNHCR in 2018. [online]. Available at: http://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/gr2018/pdf/01b_Mission.pdf [Accessed: 17 December 2020].
VÄRK, R. (2012). “Diplomatic asylum: Theory, Practice and the Case of Julian Assange”. Sisekaitseakadeemia Toimetised, pp. 240-259. Available at: https://www.peacepalacelibrary.nl/ebooks/files/386022364.pdf [Accessed: 18 March 2021].
YAVUZ, Ö. (2015). “Türkiye’de Suriyeli Mültecilere Yapılan Sağlık Yardımlarının Yasal ve Etik Temelleri”. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 12(30), pp. 265-280.
YILMAZ, S., AZER, Ö.A., ZENGINKUZUCU, D. (2019). İstanbul Esenyurt İlçesi Suriyeli Sığınmacıların Sosyal ve Ekonomik Durumları. Istanbul: Istanbul Esenyurt Universitesi.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Ramón Ruiz Ruiz; Dikran M. Zenginkuzucu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.