The European Court of Human Rights’ Engagement with International Human Rights Instruments: Looking at the Cases of Domestic Violence
Keywords:ECtHR, ECHR, domestic violence cases, international and regional human rights instruments, living instrument, fragmentation
In its recent jurisprudence on domestic violence, the European Court of Human Rights started to examine the domestic violence cases in the light of relevant international human rights law developed in this specific area. This article examines the engagement of the European Court of Human Rights with other international and regional human rights instruments in domestic violence cases. Upon examination, the article concludes that by integrating its case law into international human rights law the European Court of Human Rights broadens the scope of protection for domestic violence victims and maintains the unity of international law.
Abdel-Monem T. (2009) Opuz v. Turkey: Europe’s Landmark Judgment on Violence against Women. Human Rights Brief 17(1): 29–33.
Arato J. (2012) Constitutional Transformation in the ECtHR: Strasbourg’s Expansive Recourse to External Rules of International Law. Brooklyn Journal of International Law 37(2): 349–387.
Arnardóttir O. M. (2014) The Differences that Make a Difference: Recent Developments on the Discrimination Grounds and the Margin of Appreciation under Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Law Review 14: 647–670. https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlr/ngu025
Arnardóttir O. M. (2017) Vulnerability under Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights: Innovation or Business as Usual? Oslo Law Review 1(3): 150–171. https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.2387-3299-2017-03-03
Bessant C. (2015) Protecting Victims of Domestic Violence—Have We Got the Balance Right? The Journal of Criminal Law 79(2): 102–121. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022018315574820
Blaker Strand V. (2020) Interpreting the ECHR in its Normative Environment: Interaction between the ECHR, the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The International Journal of Human Rights 24(7): 979–992. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2019.1574423
Cartabia M. (2011) The European Court of Human Rights: judging nondiscrimination. International Journal of Constitutional Law 9(3–4): 808–814.https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mor043
Corsilles A. (1994) No-Drop Policies in the Prosecution of Domestic Violence Cases: Guarantee To Action or Dangerous Solution? Fordham Law Review 63: 853–881.
Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 4 November 1950.
Council of Europe, The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, April 2011.
Council of Europe, The Committee of the Ministers of the Council of Europe, Recommendation Rec (2002) 5 of 30 April 2002.
Danisi C. (2011) How far can the European Court of Human Rights Go in the Fight against Discrimination? Defining New Standards in its Nondiscrimination Jurisprudence. International Journal of Constitutional Law 9(3–4): 793–807. https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mor044
Dzehtsiarou K. (2011) European Consensus and the Evolutive Interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights. German Law Journal 12(10): 1730–1745. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2071832200017533
Dzehtsiarou K. (2018) What is Law for the European Court of Human Rights? Georgetown Journal of International Law 49: 89-134.
Erbas R. (2020) Effective Criminal Investigations in Combating Domestic Violence and the ECtHR: Prima Ratio v. Ultima Ratio?. In: Elettra Stradella (ed.) Gender Based Approaches to the Law and Juris Dictio In Europe. Pisa University Press, pp. 221-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2021.102468
Erbas R. (2021) Effective Criminal Investigations for Women Victims of Domestic Violence: The Approach of the ECtHR. Women's Studies International Forum 86: 1-12.
Fredman S. (2016) Emerging from the Shadows: Substantive Equality and Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Law Review 16(2): 273–301. https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlr/ngw001
Fredman S. (2019) Gender Equality and the European Convention on Human Rights. In: Reilly N (ed.) International Human Rights of Women. Springer, pp. 121–138. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-8905-3_9
Goldscheid J. and Liebowitz D. J. (2015) Due Diligence and Gender Violence: Parsing its Power and its Perils. Cornell International Law Journal 48: 301–345.
Letsas G. (2010) Strasbourg’s Interpretive Ethic: Lessons for the International Lawyer. European Journal of International Law 21(3): 509–541. https://doi.org/10.1093/ejil/chq056
Letsas G. (2013) The ECHR as a Living Instrument: Its Meaning and Legitimacy. In: Følledal A, Peters B, and Ulfstein G (eds) Constituting Europe: The European Court of Human Rights in a National, European and Global Context. Cambridge University Press, pp. 106–141. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139169295.005
Londono P. (2009) Developing Human Rights Principles in Cases of Gender-based Violence: Opuz v Turkey in the European Court of Human Rights. Human Rights Law Review 9(4): 657–667. https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlr/ngp022
McInerney-Lankford S. (2012) Fragmentation of International Law Redux: The Case of Strasbourg. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 32(3): 609–632. https://doi.org/10.1093/ojls/gqs014
McQuigg R. J. A. (2014) The European Court of Human Rights and Domestic Violence: Valiuliene v. Lithuania. The International Journal of Human Rights 18(7–8): 756–773. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2014.930820
Mowbray A. (2005) The Creativity of the European Court of Human Rights. Human Rights Law Review 5(1): 57–79. https://doi.org/10.1093/hrlrev/ngi003
Murphy S. (2019) Domestic Violence as Sex Discrimination: Ten Years Since the Seminal European Court of Human Rights Decision in Opuz v. Turkey. International Law and Politics 51: 1347–1358.
Peroni L. and Timmer A. (2013) Vulnerable groups: The promise of an emerging concept in European Human Rights Convention law. International Journal of Constitutional Law 11(4): 1056–1085. https://doi.org/10.1093/icon/mot042
Pitea C. (2013) Interpreting the ECHR in the Light of ‘Other’ International Instruments: Systemic Integration or Fragmentation of Rules on Treaty Interpretation? In: Boschiero N, Scovazzi T, Pitea C, et al. (eds) International Courts and the Development of International Law: Essays in Honour of Tullio Treves. Springer, pp. 545–559. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-6704-894-1_40
Rachovitsa A. (2015) Fragmentation of International Law Revisited: Insights, Good Practices, and Lessons to be Learned from the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights. Leiden Journal of International Law 28(4): 863–885. https://doi.org/10.1017/S092215651500045X
Rachovitsa A. (2017) The Principle of Systemic Integration in Human Rights Law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly 66(3): 557–588.https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020589317000185
Šimonović D. (2014) Global and Regional Standards on Violence Against Women: The Evolution and Synergy of the CEDAW and Istanbul Conventions. Human Rights Quarterly 36(3): 590–606. https://doi.org/10.1353/hrq.2014.0040
Sönmez E. Y. (2020) Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi Kararları Işığında Türkiye’de Kadına Yönelik Şiddetin Önlenmesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi Kadın Araştırmaları Dergisi20: 1–17. https://doi.org/10.26650/iukad.2020.658992
Theil S. (2017) Is the ‘Living Instrument’ Approach of the European Court of Human Rights Compatible with the ECHR and International Law? Kluwer Law International 23: 587–614.
Tulkens F. (2011) The Paradoxical Relationship between Criminal Law and Human Rights Journal of International Criminal Justice 9: 577-595. https://doi.org/10.1093/jicj/mqr028
UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), CEDAW General Recommendation No.19: Violence Against Women, 1992.
UN General Assembly, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women , 18 December 1979, United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1249.
Vijeyarasa R. (2020) CEDAW’s General Recommendation No. 35: A Quarter of a Century of Evolutionary Approaches to Violence Against Women. Journal of Human Rights 19(2): 153–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2019.1686347
Viljanen J. (2008) The Role of the European Court of Human Rights as a Developer of International Human Rights Law. Cuadernos Constitucionales de la Cátedra Fadrique Furió Ceriol 62–63: 249–265.
Wildhaber L. (2007) The European Convention on Human Rights and International Law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly 56: 217–231. https://doi.org/10.1093/iclq/lei163
Al-Adsani v UK App no 35763/97 (ECtHR, 21 November 2001). https://doi.org/10.5144/0256-4947.2001.258a
A.T. v Hungary Communication No 2/2003 (CEDAW, 26 January 2005).
Balsan v Romania App no 49645/09 (ECtHR, 23 May 2017).
Bankovic and others v Belgium and 16 Other States App no 52207/99 (ECtHR, 12 December 2001). https://doi.org/10.1163/157181301401748405
Bekos and Koutropoulos v Greece App no 15250/02 (ECtHR, 13 December 2005). https://doi.org/10.1299/jsmeintmp.2005.13_2
Bevacqua and S v Bulgaria App no 71127/01 (ECtHR, 12 June 2008).
Christine Goodwin v UK App no 28957/95 (ECtHR, 11 July 2002).
Demir and Baykara v Turkey App no 34503/97 (ECtHR, 12 November 2008).
Eremia and others v the Republic of Moldova App no 3564/11 (ECtHR, 28 May 2013).
Fatma Yildirim v Austria Communication No 6/2005 (CEDAW, 1 October 2007).
Fogarty v UK App no 37112/97 (ECtHR, 21 November 2001).
Glass v UK App no 61827/00 (ECtHR, 9 March 2004).
Golder v UK App no 4451/70 (ECtHR, 21 February 1975).
Halime Kilic v Turkey App no 63034/11 (ECtHR, 28 June 2016).
J.D. and A v United Kingdom App nos 32949/17 and 34614/17 (ECtHR, 24 February 2020).
Johnston and others v Ireland App no 9697/82 (ECtHR, 18 December 1986).
M.G. v Turkey App no 646/10 (ECtHR, 22 March 2016).
Mudric v the Republic of Moldova App no 74839/10 (ECtHR, 16 July 2013).
Munteanu v the Republic of Moldova App no 34168/11 (ECtHR, 26 August 2020).
Neulinger and Shuruk v Switzerland App no 41615/07 (ECtHR, 6 July 2010).
Oneryildiz v Turkey App no 48939/99 (ECtHR, 30 November 2004).
Opuz v Turkey App No 33401/02 (ECtHR, 9 June 2009).
Rumor v Italy App no 72964/10 (ECtHR, 27 May 2014). https://doi.org/10.4244/EIJV10I1A6
Russian Conservative Party of Entrepreneurs and others v Russia App nos 55066/00 and 55638/00 (ECtHR, 11 April 2007).
Siliadin v France App no 73316/01 (ECtHR, 26 October 2005).
T.M. and C. M. v the Republic of Moldova App no 26608/11 (ECtHR, 28 April 2014).
Talpis v Italy App no 41237/14 (ECtHR, 2 March 2017).
Taskin and others v Turkey App no 46117/99 (ECtHR, 30 March 2005).
Tyrer v UK App no 5856/72 (ECtHR, 25 April 1978).
Valiuliene v Lithuania App no 33234/07 (ECtHR, 26 June 2013).
Volodina v Russia App no 41261/17 (ECtHR, 4 November 2019).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 EBRU DEMIR
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.