Constitutions, Minorities and Superdiversity
Keywords:Superdiversity, Minorities, Discrimination, Constitutions, Cultural diversity
Superdiversity is an interesting concept that needs to be incorporated into the field of legal sciences. A comparative analysis of the European Constitutions shows that constitutional references to culturally based minorities reflect the particular political context of each country, although there is a correspondence between the categories generally employed in comparative constitutional law and those in common use in international institutions. In addition to the cultural elements that characterise minorities (language, ethnicity, religion, nationality), other identity factors such as sex (gender), physical appearance (phenotype), opinions or convictions and social or economic status are generally included in anti-discrimination provisions. However, other elements that are relevant to the idea of superdiversity, such as place of residence within an urban environment and employment status, hardly appear in the European constitutional texts. If superdiversity is implemented without calibrating it to each context it may pose a threat to the fair and appropriate treatment of traditional minorities.
Arnaut, K.; Blommaert, J. Rampton, B.; Spotti, M. (eds)(2015), Language and Superdiversity, Routledge. DOI 10.4324/9781315730240
Capotorti, F. (1991), Study on the Rights of Persons belonging to ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, New York: United Nations/Centre for Human Rights.
Chopin, I. and Germaine, C. (2017), A comparative analysis of non-discrimination law in Europe. The 28 EU Member States, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and Turkey compared, Brussels: European Commission (Directorate-General for Justice and Consumers).
Creese, A. and Blackledge, A. (eds.) (2018), The Routledge Handbook of Language and Superdiversity, Oxon: Routledge. DOI 10.4324/9781315696010
De Varennes, F. (1996), Language, Minorities and Human Rights, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Deumert, A. (2014), ‘Digital superdiversity: A commentary’. Discourse, Context, and Media, 4-5, 116-120. DOI 10.1016/j.dcm.2014.08.003
Dinstein, Y. and Tabory, M. (eds.) (1991), The Protection of Minorities and Human Rights, Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
Fenet, A. (dir.) (1995), Le Droit et les minorités, Brussels: Bruylant.
Foner, N, Willem Duyvendak, J and Kasinitz, P (2019), ‘Introduction: super-diversity in everyday life’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol 42-1, Special Issue: Super-diversity in Everday Life. DOI 10.1080/01419870.2017.1406969
Ginsburg, T. and Dixon, R. (eds.) (2011), Comparative Constitutional Law, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. https://doi.org/10.4337/9780857931214
Häberle, P (2006), ‘Aspectos culturales de la identidad cultural’, Derechos y Libertades, no 14, pp. 89-102.
Häberle, P (2010), ‘Métodos y principios de interpretación constitucional. Un catálogo de problemas’, Revista de Derecho Constitucional Europeo, no. 13, pp. 379-414 (translation to Spanish by professor Francisco Balaguer Callejon from Häberle, P. (2000), ‘Methoden und Prinzipien der Verfassungsinterpretation - ein Problemkatalog’, Revue européenne de droit public = European review of public law, vol. 12, no 3, pp. 867-895).
Hannum, H. (1993), Documents on Autonomy and Minority Rights, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
Harari, Y.N. (2018), 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, London: Jonathan Cape-Penguin Random House.
Meissner, F. and Vertovec, S. (2015) ‘Comparing super-diversity,’ Ethnic and Racial Studies 38(4): 541-555. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2015.980295
Osin, N. and Porat, D. (eds.) (2005), Legislating against Discrimination. An international Survey of Anti-Discrimination Norms, Leiden-Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Pavlenko, A (2018) ‘Superdiversity and why it isn’t: Reflections on terminological innovations and academic branding’, in Barbara Schmenk, Stephan Breidbach, and Lutz Küster (eds.) Sloganization in Language Education Discourse. Conceptual Thinking in the Age of Academic Marketization, Bristol: Multilingual Matters. DOI 10.21832/9781788921879-009
Pegoraro, L. and Rinella, A. (2007), Diritto Pubblico Comparato. Profili metodologici, Padova: CEDAM.
Pentassuglia, G. (2002), Minorities in International Law, Strasbourg: Council of Europe/European Center for Minority Issues.
Phillimore, J.; Sigona, N. and Tonkiss, K. (eds.) (2020), Superdiversity, Policy and Governance in Europe, Multi-scalar Perspectives, Bristol: Bristol University Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781447352051.001.0001
Ruiz Vieytez, E. (2016), ‘Cultural traits as defining elements of minority groups’, The Age of Human Rights Journal, special issue on Identity, Belonging and Human Rights, no 7; DOI 10.17561/tahrj.n7.2
Solanke, I. (2017), Discrimination as Stigma. A Theory on Anti-discrimination Law, Oxford-Portland: Hart Publishing.
Thornberry, P. (1991), International Law and the Rights of Minorities, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Vertovec, S. (2007) ‘Super-diversity and its implications’, Ethnic and Racial Studies 29(6): 1024-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870701599465
Vertovec, S. (2019) ‘Talking around super-diversity’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42:1, 125-139, DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2017.1406128
Yacoub, J. (1995), Les minorités, quelle protection?, Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Eduardo Ruiz Vieytez
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.