Human trafficking in West Africa: An implementation assessment of international and regional normative standards


  • Daniel Ogunniyi University of Hull
  • Oladimeji Idowu Redeemer's University



Human Trafficking, Palermo Protocol, Treaty Implementation, Senegal, Ghana, Nigeria, West Africa


It is now over 20 years since the Palermo Protocol was adopted as a global mobilisation tool to combat human trafficking. Although the Palermo Protocol has been widely ratified by all 15 states in West Africa, the implementation of the instrument in the sub-region remains unclear. Also, beyond the Palermo Protocol, a systematic assessment of other anti-trafficking mechanisms available in West Africa is non-existent. Thus, this study has two core objectives: the first is to chronicle the key anti-trafficking instruments and their relevance in West Africa, while the second aspect engages with the manner in which those norms are translated at the domestic level in three West African countries namely, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal. The study finds that human trafficking has remained resilient both at sub-regional and domestic levels despite the legal efforts to end it. Relevant trends and implementation deficits are identified across the three states, while recommendations are offered for effective anti-trafficking governance.  


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How to Cite

Ogunniyi, D., & Idowu, O. (2022). Human trafficking in West Africa: An implementation assessment of international and regional normative standards. The Age of Human Rights Journal, (19), 165–185.