Male rape and sexual crimes in International Criminal Law jurisprudence: a critical appraisal

Dimitris Liakopoulos

Resumen


El presente trabajo ha intentado analizar crímenes sexuales y especialmente el crimen de violación masculina. La jurisprudencia internacional de los Tribunales penales internacionales y la Corte Penal Internacional ha tratado de calificar la violación como un crimen de genocidio en forma de graves lesiones físicas y corporales, aunque no necesariamente permanente (letra. B) art. 6 del Estatuto de Roma; o como un crimen contra la humanidad cuando existen elementos de contexto y, sobre todo, elementos materiales que surgen de las definiciones dadas por los Tribunales especiales y los elementos de los crímenes; o incluso como un crimen de guerra en caso de que se implemente como parte de un plan o diseño político, o como parte de una serie de crímenes similares cometidos a gran escala. Debido a la falta de tratamiento de un delito “particular” y difícil de probar o testificar ante un tribunal internacional. La indicación del nivel de gravedad del delito es necesaria para la relevancia de la violencia sexual y la violación como crímenes de lesa humanidad que veremos en los próximos años desde el panorama del derecho penal.


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ABTAHI H., KOH S.A., “The emerging enforcement practice of the International Criminal Court” in Cornell International Law Journal, 2012, pp. 1ss.

ACEVEDO P.L., “The legitimacy of international criminal Tribunals”, in Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 2017, pp. 164ss.

ACQUAVIVA G., War crimes at the ICTY: Jurisdictional and substantive issues, in BELLELLI R. (a cura di), International criminal justice. Law and practice from the Rome Statute to its review, Ashgate publishing, 2010, pp. 299ss.

AGNEW A., “Acquittals in Mugenzi & Mugiraneza v. Prosecutor contribute to the weak legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda”, in Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 2015, pp. 8ss.

AHLBRECHT H., BÖHMEER K., Internationales Strafrecht, C.F. Müller, 2018.

AHMAD H., “Context at the International Criminal Court”, in Pace International Law Review, 2017, pp. 132ss.

ALEXANDER JF., “The International Criminal Court and the prevention of atrocities: Predicting the Court's impact”, in Villanova Law Review, 2009, pp. 27ss.

AMBOS K, ACKERMAN B., Liber amicorum Mirjam Damaška. Beiträge zum Internationalen und Europäischen Strafrecht, Duncker & Humblot, 2016.

AMBOS K., “Critical Issues in the Bemba decision”, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 2009, pp. 715–26.

AMBOS K., “The crime of aggression after Kampala”, in German Yearbook of International Law, 2010, 478, 501-504.

AMBOS K., Individual criminal responsibility, in TRIFFTERER (ed.), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers’ Notes, Article by Article, 2nd ed., C.H. Beck/Hart/Nomos, 2008, pp. 795–843.

AMBOS K., Internationales Strafrecht, C.H. Beck, 2018.

AMBOS K., Sexual offences in international criminal law, with a special focus on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (July 3, 2012), in BERGSMO M., BUTENSCHØN A., SKRE WOOD E.J. (eds.), Understanding and proving international sex crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic Epublisher, Beijing, 2012, pp. 144ss.

AMBOS K., STEGMILLER I., “Prosecuting international crimes at the International Criminal Court: Is there a coherent and comprehensive prosecution strategy?”, in Crime, Law and Social Change, 2013.

AMBOS K., Treatise on unternational criminal law: vol. 2: The crimes and sentencing, Oxford University Press, 2014.

ARCHIBUGI D., PEASE A., Crime and global justice: The dynamics of international punishment, ed. Polity, 2018.

BABINGTON-ASHAYE A., COMRIE A., ADENIRAN A., International criminal investigations: Law and practice, Eleven International Publishing, 2018.

BACHAROVA T., The standing of victims in the procedural design of the ICC, ed. Brill, 2017.

BADAR M., HIGGINS N., General principles of law in the early jurisprudence of the ICC, in MARINIELLO T. (ed.), The International Criminal Court in search of its purpose and identity, ed. Routledge, 2014.

BADAR M., PORRO S., Rethinking the mental elements in the jurisprudence of the ICC, in STAHN C. (ed.), The law and practice of the International Criminal Court, Oxford University Press, 2015.

BADAR M., The concept of mens rea in international criminal law. The Case for a unified approach, Hart Publishing, 2013.

BADAR M.E., “Dolus eventualis and the Rome Statute without it?”, in New Criminal Law Review, 2009, pp. 436ss.

BARRIGA S., GROVER L., “A historic breakthrough on the crime of aggression”, in American Journal of International Law, 2011, pp. 518ss.

BENSOUDA F., “Reflections from the International Criminal Court Prosecutor”, in Case Western Journal of International Law, 2012, pp. 506ss.

BERGSMO M., Thematic prosecution of international sex crimes some critical comments from a theoretical and comparative perspectives, ed. Torkel Opshahl Academic Epublisher, Beijing, Beijing, 2012, pp. 294ss.

BIANCHI L., The prosecution of rape and sexual violence: Lessons from prosecution at the ICTR, in DE BROUWER AM. Et al. (eds.), Sexual violence as an international crime: Interdisciplinary approaches, ed. Intersentia, 2013, pp. 125ss.

BOESTEN J., “Analyzing rape regimes at the interface of war and peace in Peru”, in The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2010, pp. 112ss.

BOESTEN J., WILDING P., “Transformative gender justice: Setting an agenda”, in Women’s Studies International Forum, 2015, pp. 77ss.

BOSLY H., VANDERMEERSCH D., Gènocide, crimes contre l'humanitè et crimes de guerre face à la justice, ed. Bruylant, 2012.

BRADY H., “The power of precedents: using the case law of the ad hoc international criminal Tribunals and hybrid Courts in adjudicating sexual violence and gender-based crimes at the ICC”, in Australian Journal of Human Rights, 2012.

BROWN A., GRENFELL L., “The international crime of gender-based persecution and the Taliban”, in Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2003, pp. 360-361.

BROWN B.S., Research handbook on international criminal law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, pp. 86ss.

BUSS D., “Rethinking “rape as a weapon of war”, in Feminist Legal Studies, 2009, pp. 152ss.

CARPENTER R.C., “Recognizing gender-based violence against civilian men and boys in conflict situations”, in Security Dialogue, 2006, pp. 98-99.

CASSESE A., (ed.), International criminal law, Oxford University Press, 2013.

CHAPPELL L., The politics of gender justice at the International Criminal Court, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. 266ss.

CHIEDU MOGHALU K.C., “International humanitarian law from Nuremberg to Rome: The weighty precedents of the international criminal Tribunal for Rwanda”, in Pace International Law Review, 2002, pp. 285ss.

CLARK R.S., “Amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court considered at the first review Conference on the Court, Kampala, 31 May-11 June 2010”, in Goettingen Journal of International Law, 2010, pp. 690ss.

COHEN D.C. Et al, Wartime sexual violence: Misconceptions, implications, and ways forward, Washington DC, United States Institute of Peace, February 2013, pp. 7.

COLE A., International criminal law and sexual violence, in MCGLYNN C., MUNRO V.E., Rethinking rape law. International and comparative perspectives, ed. Routledge, 2010, pp. 49ss.

DANNENBAUM T., The crime of aggression, humanity and the soldier, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

DAVID R., “International criminal Tribunals and the perception of justice: The effect of the ICTY in Croatia”, in International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2014, pp. 478ss.

DAVIDSON C., “How to read international criminal law: Strict construction and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court”, in Saint John's Law Review, 2017, pag. 4.

DE GUZMAN M.M., “How serious are international crimes? The gravity problem in international criminal law”, in Columbia Journal of Transnational law, 2012, pp. 20ss.

DE RUITER D., VAN DER WOLF D., Aggression and international criminal law, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2011.

DE VOS C.M., “Investigation from Afar: The ICC’s evidence problem”, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 2013, pp. 1009ss.

DEFALCO R.C., “Accounting for famine at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. The crimes against humanity of extermination, inhumane acts and persecution”, in The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2011.

DINSTEIN Y., War, aggression and self-defence, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

DONDÉ MATUTE J., “Responsabilidad penal internacional: Los nuevos escenarios dogmàticos”, in Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional, 2018.

DUBLER R., KALYK M., Crimes against humanity in the 21st century. Law, practice and threats to international peace and security, ed. Brill, 2018.

EBOE-OSUJI C., International law and sexual violence in armed conflicts, ed. Brill, 2012, pp. 146ss.

EBOE-OSUJI C., "The ICC and the African Court and the estended notion of complementarity of international criminal jurisdictions", in Nigeria Yearbook of International Law, 2018.

ERIKSSON BAAZ M., STERN M., The complexity of violence: A critical analysis of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nordiska Afrikaininstitutet and Sida, 2010, pp. 7-14, 41-50.

FAIRLIE M.A., “The United States and the International Criminal Court post-Bush: A beautiful courtship but an unlikely marriage”, in Berkeley Journal of International Law, 2011, pp. 530ss.

FENRICK W., Article 28, in TRIFFTERER O. (ed.), Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 1999, pp. 518-520.

FINNIN S., “Mental elements under article 30 of the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court. A comparative analysis”, in International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 2012, pp. 328ss.

GALÁN A., STONE J., “Aggression and the future of the International Criminal Court”, in International Law Review, 2018.

GALÁN J.S., J”ulius Strong, aggression and the future of the International Criminal Court”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2018, pp. 306ss.

GIL GIL A., “Mens rea in co-perpetration and indirect perpetration according to article 30 of the Rome Statute. Arguments against punishment for excesses committed by the agent or the co-perpetrator”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2014, pp. 85ss.

GILLETT M., “The anatomy of an international crime aggression at the International Criminal Court”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2013, pp. 832ss.

GLENNON M., “The blank-prose crime of aggression”, in Yale Journal of International Law, 2010, pp. 71-102.

GUSTAFSON K., “The requirement of an “express agreement” for Joint Criminal Enterprise”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, pp. 138-158.

HAGAY-FREY A., Sex and gender crimes in the new international law: Past, present, future, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2011, pp. 80ss.

HAJDIN N., “The nature of leadership in the crime of aggression The ICC's new concern?”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2017, pp. 545ss.

HALLEY J., “Rape in Berlin: Reconsidering the criminalisation of rape in the international law of armed conflict”, in Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2008, pp. 80ss.

HEINSCH R., “The crime of aggression after Kampala: Success or burden for the future?”, in Goettingen Journal of International Law, 2010, 715-740.

HELLER K.J., “What is an international crime?”, in Harvard International Law Journal, 2018.

HELLER K.J., The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in HELLER J., DUBER M.D. (eds.), The Handbook of comparative criminal law, Stanford Law Books, Stanford, 2011, pp. 594ss.

HELLER K.J., SIMPSO G. (eds), The hidden histories of war crimes trials, Oxford University Press, 2013.

HELLWIG-BÖTE M., “Political bickering over the International Criminal Court: The Case of Kenya, January 2014”, Stiftung Wissenschaft Politik, 2015.

HOYLE L., “Command responsibility-A legal obligation to deter sexual violence in the military”, in Boston College International & Comparative Law Review, 2014, pp. 354ss.

JAIN N., Going beyond prosecutorial discretion: Institutional factors influencing thematic prosecution, in BERGSMO M., Thematic prosecution of international sex crimes, Beijing, 2012, pp. 208ss.

JANJAC K., The mental element in the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court, Wolf Legal Publishers, 2013.

KEMP G., Individual criminal liability for the international crime of aggression, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

KIRBY P., “How is rape a weapon of war? Feminist International Relations, modes of critical explanation and the study of wartime sexual violence”, in European Journal of International Relations, 2012, pp. 802ss.

KRESS C, BARRIGA S., The crime of aggression, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

KRESS C., “On the activation of ICC jurisdiction over the crime of aggression”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2018.

KRESS C., VON HOLTZENDORFF L., “The Kampala compromise on the crime of aggression”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2010, pp. 1195-1206.

LANGSTON L., “No penetration-and it's still rape”, in Pepperdine Law Review, 1999, pp. 6ss.

LEWIS D.A., “Unrecognized victims: Sexual violence against men in conflict settings under international law”, in Wisconsin Journal of International Law, 2009, pp. 24ss.

LIAKOPOULOS D., Parità di armi nella giustizia penale internazionale, vol. 1, ed. Libellula University Press, 2018.

MANIVANNAN A., “Seeking justice for male victims of sexual violence in armed conflicts”, in International Law and Politics, 2014, pp. 654ss.

MANIVANNAN A., “Seeking justice for male victims of sexual violence in armed conflicts”, in New York University of Journal of International Law and Politics, 2014, pp. 638ss.

MANSON R.L., “Identifying the rough edges of the Kampala compromise”, in Criminal Law Forum, 2010, pp. 418ss.

MARCZAK N., SHIELDS K., Genocide perspective V: A global crime, UTS ePress, 2017.

MARINIELLO T., The International Criminal Court in search of its purpose and identity, ed. Routledge, 2014.

MCDERMOTT Y, SCHABAS W.A., Ashgate research companion to international criminal law. Critical perspectives, ed. Routledge, 2016.

MCDOUGALL C., The crime of aggression under the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court, Cambridge University Press, 2013.

MEISENBERG S., The extraordinary Chambers in the Courts in Cambodia. Assessing their contribution to international criminal law, ed. Springer, 2016.

MELLOH F., Einheitliche Strafzumessung in den Rechtsquellen des ICC-Statuts, Dunker&Humblot, 2010.

MELONI C., Fragmentation of the notion of co-perpetration in international criminal law, in VAN DEN HERIK L., STAHN C. (eds.), The diversification and fragmentation of international criminal law, ed. Brill, 2012, pp. 501-502. YANEN, Theories of co-perpetration in international criminal law, ed. Brill, 2018.

MIBENGE C.S., Sex and international Tribunals: The erasure of gender from the war narrative, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

MOUTHAAN S., "Sexual violence against men and international law criminalising the unmentionable", in International Criminal Law Review, 2013, pp. 667ss.

MOUTHAAN S., “The prosecution of gender-based crimes at the ICC: Challenges and opportunities”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2011, pp. 776ss.

MOUTHAAN S., “Victim participation at the ICC for victims of gender-based crimes: A conflict of interest?”, in Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law, 2013, pp. 619ss.

MUDGWAY C., “Sexual exploitation by UN peacekeepers: the “survival sex” gap in international human rights law”, in The International Journal of Human Rights, 2017.

MUELLER S.D., “Kenya and the International Criminal Court (ICC): Politics, the election and the law”, in Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2014, pp. 5ss.

MUKUM MBAKU J., “International justice: The International Criminal Court and Africa, January 2014, Foresight Africa: Top Priorities for the Continent in 2014 “, The Brookings Africa Growth Initiative, 2015.

NÍ AOLÀIN F. et al., On the frontlines: Gender, war, and the post-conflict process, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 49-55.

NIAHM H., La lutte continue: Investigating and prosecuting sexual violence at the ICC, in STAHN C., The law and practice of the International Criminal Court, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 831ss.

NIGGLI M.A., HEIMGARTNER ST., Internationales Strafrecht, Helbing Lichtenhahn, 2015.

NOVAK A., The International Criminal Court: An Introduction, ed. Springer, 2015.

NYBONDAS M.L., Command responsibility and its applicability to civilian leaders, ed. TMC Asser Press, 2010.

O’CONNELL J., “Gambling with the psyche: Does prosecuting human rights violators console their victims?”, in Harvard International Law Journal, 2005, pp. 312ss.

OOSTERHOFF O., “Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: an open secret”, in Reproductive Health Matters, 2004, pp. 68ss.

OOSTERHOFF P., ZWANIKKEN P., KETTING E., “Sexual torture of men in Croatia and other conflict situations: An open secret”, in Reproductive Health Matters, 2014, pp. 70-71.

OOSTERVELD V., “Gender-sensitive justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda”, in New England Journal of International and Comparative Law, 2005, pp. 119, 128ss.

OOSTERVELD V., “Sexual violence against men and boys in armed conflict or mass atrocity: Addressing a gendered harm in international criminal Tribunals”, in Journal of International Law and International Relations, 2014, pp. 118ss.

O’REGAN F., “Prosecutor vs. Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo: The cumulative charging principle, Gender-based violence, and expressivism", in Georgetown Journal of International Law, 2012, pp. 1344ss.

PALMER E., WILLIAMS S., “A “shift in attitude”? Institutional change and sexual and gender-based crimes at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia”, in International Feminist Journal of Politics, 2017.

PARASHAR S., “What wars and “war bodies” know about international relations”, in Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 2013, pp. 621ss.

PÈREZ-LEÓN-ACEVEDO J.P., “The Katanga reparation order at the International Criminal Court developing the emerging reparation, practice of the Court”, in Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 2018.

PILLAY N., “Sexual violence: Standing by the victim”, in Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 2009, pp. 462ss.

PIRAGOFF D., Mental element, in AMBOS K., TRIFFTERER O., The Rome statute of the International Criminal Court, ed. Nomos, Hart Publishing, C.H. Beck, 2016, pp. 114ss.

POLITI M., “The ICC and the crime of aggression. A dream that came through and the reality ahead”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2012, pp. 268ss.

PORRO S., Risk and mental element: An analysis of national and international law on core crimes, ed. Nomos, 2014.

RAMJI-NOGALES J., “Questioning hierarchies of harm: Women, forced migration and international criminal law”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2011.

REISINGER CORACINI A., “The International Criminal Court’s exercise of jurisdiction over the crime of aggression-at Least…in reach…over some”, in Goettingen Journal of International Law, 2010, pp. 748-788.

RUSSELL W., “Sexual violence against men and boys”, in Forced Migration Review, 2007, pp. 22, 23.

SÁCOUTO S., “Victim participation at the International Criminal Court and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: A feminist project”, in Michigan Journal of Gender & Law, 2012, pp. 298ss.

SÁCOUTO S., Gaps in the gender-based violence jurisprudence of international and hybrid criminal Courts: Can human rights help?, in NGWENA C., DUROJAYE E. ( eds.), Strengthening the protection of sexual and reproductive health and rights in the African region through human rights, Pretoria University Law Press, 2014, pp. 319ss.

SÁNCHEZ REVERTE A., “Referencia al crimen de genocidio aproximation genocide crime”, in Revista de Estudios Juridicos (segunda època), 2016.

SATZGER H., SCHLUCKEBIER W., WIDMAIER G., Strafprozessordung (StPO), Carl Heymanns Verlag, 2017.

SAYAPIN S., The crime of aggression in international criminal law. Historical development, comparative analysis and present State, ed. Springer, 2014.

SCHABAS W.A., The International Criminal Court, A commentary to the Rome Statute, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 424ss.

SCHEFFER D., “The complex crime of aggression under the Rome Statute”, in Leiden Journal of International Law, 2010, pp. 898ss.

SCHEFFER D., The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, in BASSIOUNI M.C., International Criminal Law, ed. Brill, 2008, pag. 253.

SCHRAMM E., Internationales Strafrecht, C.H. Beck, 2011.

SCHUETZE-REYMANN J., International criminal justice on trial. The ICTY and ICTR case referral practice to national Courts and its possible relevance for the ICC, ed. Duncker & Humblot, 2016.

SCHÜNEMANN R., Strafverfahrensrecht, ed. C.H. Beck, 2012, pp. 439ss.

SCHUON C., International criminal procedure: A clash of legal cultures, T.M.C. Asser press, 2010.

SIVAKUMARAN S., “Lost in translation: UN responses to sexual violence against men and boys in situations of armed conflict”, in International Review of the Red Cross, 2010, pp. 259, 264ss.

SIVAKUMARAN S., “Male/Male rape and the “taint” of homosexuality”, in Human Rights Quarterly, 2005, pp. 1288ss.

SIVAKUMARAN S., “Sexual violence against men in armed conflict”, in European Journal of International Law, 2007, pp. 254.

SIVAKUMARAN S., Prosecuting sexual violence against men and boys, in DE BROUWER A.M. Et al. (eds.), Sexual violence as an international crime: Interdisciplinary approaches, ed. Intersentia, 2013, pag. 82.

SMALENBACH K., “Das Verbrechen der Aggression vor dem Internationalen Strafgerichtshof: Ein politischer Erfolg mit rechtlichen Untiefen”, in Jurist Zeitung, 2010, 745-748.

SQUATRITO T., YOUNG O., FOLLESDAL A., ULSTEIN G., The performance of international Courts and Tribunals, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

STEMPLE L., “Male rape and human rights”, in Hasting Law Journal, 2009, pp. 619ss.

SVÁČEK O., “Brothers and sisters in arms as victims of war crimes. Ntagada case before the ICC”, in Czech Yearbook of Public & Private International Law, 2018.

TRAHAN J, “The Rome Statute’s amendment on the crime of aggression: Negotiations at the Kampala Review Conference”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2011, pp. 49ss.

TRAHAN J., “From Kampala to New York. The final engotiations to activate the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over the crime of aggression”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2018, pp. 198ss.

TRAHAN J., “From Kampala to New York. The final negotiations to activate the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court over the crime of aggression”, in International Law Review, 2018.

TRIFFTERER O., Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Observers' Notes. Article by article, Hart Publishing, 2008, pp. 712ss.

TRIFFTERER O., AMBOS K., The Rome statute of the International Criminal Court. A commentary, ed. C.H. Beck, Nomos, Oxford University Press, 2016.

TROUILLE H., “How far has the international criminal Tribunal for Rwanda really core since Akayesu in the prosecution and investigation of sexual offenses committed against women? An analysis of Ndindilyimana et al.”, in International Criminal Law Review, 2013, pp. 750ss.

VAGIAS M., The territorial jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 202ss.

VAN DEN HERIK L., STAHN C. (eds.), The diversification and fragmentation of international criminal law, ed. Brill, 2012, pp. 501-502.

VAN SCHAAK B., “Negotiating at the interface of power and law: The crime of aggression”, in Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 2011, pp. 506ss.

VEST H., Völkerrechtsverbrechen verfolgen. Ein abgestuftes Mehrebenenmodell systemischer Tatherrschaft, C.H. Beck, 2011.

VILJOEN F., International human rights law in Africa, Oxford University Press, 2012.

VISEUR-SELLERS P.V., “Gender strategy is not a luxury for international Courts”, in American University Gender, Society Policy & Law, 2009, pp. 302ss.

VON BRAUN L., MICUS A., “Judicial independence at risk: Critical issues regarding the crime of aggression raised by selected human rights organizations”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2012, pp. 112ss.

WACHALA K., “The tools to combat the war on women's bodies: Rape and sexual violence against women in armed conflict”, in The International Journal of Human Rights, 2012.

WATERLOW J., SCHUHMACHER J., War crimes trials and investigations. A multi-disciplinary introdcution, Oxford University Press, 2018.

WEIGEND T., “Intent, mistake of law, and co-perpetration in the Lubanga Decision on confirmation of charges“, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2008, pp. 474ss.

WEISBORD N., “Conceptualizing aggression”, in Duke Journal of Comparative International Law, 2009.

WERLE J, JESSBERGER F., Principles of international criminal law, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 795ss.

WERLE J., “Individual criminal responsibility in Article 25 ICC Statute“, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2007, pp. 954ss.

WERLE J., Völkerstrafrecht, ed. M. Siebeck, 2012, pp. 610ss.

WILLIAMS S., OPDAM J., “The unrealised potential for transformative reparations for sexual and gender-based violence in Sierra Leone,” in The International Journal of Human Rights, 2017, pp. 1284ss.

WOLFE L., “Blind spot: Why do convictions for the world’s worst crimes neglect survivors of rape?”, in Foreign Policy, 12 March 2014.

YANEV N., Theories of co-perpetration in international criminal law, ed. Brill, 2018.

YANG G., International Criminal Court: A judicial guarantee for international peace and security, in BERGSMO M., LING Y., State sovereignty and international criminal law, Torkel Opshal Academic Epublisher, 2012, pp. 98ss.

YASUAKI O., International law in a transcivilizational world, Cambridge University Press, 2017.

ZAWATI H.M., “Impunity or immunity: Wartime male rape wants sexual torture as a crime against humanity”, in Torture, 2007, pp. 34ss.

ZIMMERMANN A., “Amending the amendment provisions of the Rome Statute”, in Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2012, pp. 210ss.




DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17561/rej.n18.a4

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.