La praxis etnofenomenológica

Una apropiación metodológica para el estudio de los estados no ordinarios de conciencia en el ámbito de las ciencias cognitivas

Autores/as

  • Diego Gonzalez-Rodriguez Universidad Camilo José Cela

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17561/rae.v24.8463

Palabras clave:

Ciencias Cognitivas, Etnofenomenología, Antropología de la Conciencia, Cognición Corpórea, Observación Participante

Resumen

Este artículo presenta una propuesta, dentro del ámbito de las ciencias cognitivas, denominada praxis etnofenomenológica, fundamentada en la apropiación de enfoques y herramientas de investigación nacidas en el ámbito antropológico. Esta praxis se fundamenta en la integración de elementos tomados de la antropología cognitiva, la etnobotánica y la participación radical, considerando además una aproximación experiencial directa a los estados no ordinarios de conciencia. El objetivo es facilitar una apertura epistemológica y ontológica en el científico cognitivo. Para ello, se presenta la cognición como un fenómeno ubicuo, difuso y permeable, que va más allá del mero procesamiento de información en circuitos electrónicos o en sustratos de base neural. También se profundiza en la dimensión experiencial de la cognición, argumentando cómo su comprensión resulta inaccesible sin una praxis de base fenomenológica. A través de un análisis exhaustivo de la literatura, seguido de una discusión, se presenta la base teórica y metodológica de un empirismo radical caracterizado por la exploración directa de los estados no ordinarios de conciencia. También se plantea la necesidad de articular una comunidad de práctica y producción de conocimiento en el marco de la praxis etnofenomenológica, capaz de generar una nueva cultura, esto es, un nuevo marco simbólico y relacional, en torno al estudio de la conciencia.

Descargas

Los datos de descarga aún no están disponibles.

Referencias

Analayo, B. (2003). Satipatthana. The Direct Path to Realization. Cambridge: Windhorse.

Atchison, J., & Head, L. (2016). Rethinking ethnobotany? A methodological reflection on human-plant research. In Participatory research in more-than-human worlds (pp. 192-205). Routledge.

Barrett, H. C. (2020). Towards a cognitive science of the human: Cross-cultural approaches and their urgency. Trends in cognitive sciences, 24(8), 620-638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2020.05.007

Bartra, R. (2006). Antropología del cerebro: La conciencia y los sistemas simbólicos. Editorial PRE-TEXTOS.

Barušs, I., & Mossbridge, J. (2017). Transcendent mind. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. https://doi.org/10.1037/15957-009

Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and episte-mology. University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226924601.001.0001

Banan, S., Ridwan, M., & Adisaputera, A. (2020). A study of connectionism theory. Budapest Int. Res. Critics Inst. J.: Humanit. Soc. Sci., 3(3), 2335-2342. https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v3i3.1181

Beller, S., Bender, A., & Medin, D. L. (2012). Should anthropology be part of cognitive science? Topics in Cognitive science, 4(3), 342-353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2012.01196.x

Bitbol, M. (2019). Consciousness, being and life: phenomenological approaches to mindfulness. Journal of Phenome-nological Psychology, 50(2), 127-161. https://doi.org/10.1163/15691624-12341360

Block, N. (1995). The mind as the software of the brain. In E. E. Smith & D. N. Osherson (Eds.), Thinking: An invitation to cognitive science (pp. 377-425). The MIT Press.

Boas, F. (1911). The Mind of Primitive Man. Macmillan.

Bostrom, N. (2005). In Defense of Posthuman Dignity. Bioethics, 19(3), 202-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2005.00437.x

Bostrom, N., & Sandberg, A. (2009). Cognitive enhancement: methods, ethics, regulatory challenges. Science and Engineering Ethics, 15(3), 311-341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-009-9142-5

Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507

Brentano, F. (2012). Psychology from an empirical standpoint. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203202883

Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of Meaning. Harvard University Press.

Baluska, F. y Levin, M. (2016). On having no head: Cognition throughout biological systems. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00902

Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Goodwin, G. M. (2017). The therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs: past, present, and future. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11), 2105-2113. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2017.84

Chalmers, D. J. (1995). Facing up to the problem of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2(3), 200-219.

Chalmers, D. J., & Clark, A. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58(1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1093/analys/58.1.7

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783112316009

Clark, A. (1997). Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/1552.001.0001

Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. (1998). The Extended Mind. Analysis, 58(1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1093/analys/58.1.7

Coolidge, F. L., & Wynn, T. (2009). The Rise of Homo sapiens: The Evolution of Modern Thinking. Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444308297

Csordas, T. J. (1993). Somatic Modes of Attention. Cultural Anthropology, 8(2), 135-156. https://doi.org/10.1525/can.1993.8.2.02a00010

D'Andrade, R. (1995). The Development of Cognitive Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139166645

Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt Brace.

Davis, W. (1996). One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest. Simon & Schuster.

De Beaune, S. A., Coolidge, F. L., & Wynn, T. (Eds.). (2009). Cognitive archaeology and human evolution. Cambridge University Press.

Deutsch, E. (1980). Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction. University of Hawaii Press.

Desjarlais, R., & Jason Throop, C. (2011). Phenomenological approaches in anthropology. Annual review of anthro-pology, 40, 87-102. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-092010-153345

Donald, M. (1991). Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Harvard University Press.

Dreyfus, H. L. (1972). What Computers Can't Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason. Harper & Row.

Dunbar, R. I. M. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 6(5), 178-190. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6505(1998)6:5<178::AID-EVAN5>3.0.CO;2-8

Dupuche, J. R. (2003). Abhinavagupta: The Kula Ritual as Elaborated in Chapter 29 of the Tantraloka. Motilal Banarsi-dass.

Eliade, M. (2011). El mito del eterno retorno: Arquetipos y repetición. Humanidades

Eliade, M. (2020). Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Princeton University Press.

Erazo, J., & Jarrett, C. (2018). Managing alterity from within: The ontological turn in anthropology and indigenous efforts to shape shamanism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24(1), 145-163. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.12756

Fericgla, J. M. (2000). Los jíbaros, cazadores de sueños: diario de un antropólogo entre los Shuar: experimentos con la ayajuasca. Editorial Abya Yala.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. Ameri-can psychologist, 34(10), 906.

https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906

Forman, R. K. C. (1990). The Problem of Pure Consciousness: Mysticism and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195059809.001.0001

García, J. H. V. (2010). Conciencia e intencionalidad, visión cognitiva y fenomenológica. Ánfora: Revista Científica de la Universidad Autónoma de Manizales, 17(28), 69-92.

https://doi.org/10.30854/anf.v17.n28.2010.100

Gagliano, M., Renton, M., Depczynski, M., & Mancuso, S. (2016). Experience teaches plants to learn faster and for-get slower in environments where it matters. Oecologia, 175(1), 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-013-2873-7

Gallagher, S. (2012). Phenomenology. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137283805

Gallagher, S. (2018). Decentering the brain: Embodied cognition and the critique of neurocentrism and narrow-minded philosophy of mind. Constructivist Foundations, 14 (1), 8-21.

Gallimore, A. R., & Strassman, R. J. (2016). A model for the application of target-controlled intravenous infusion for a prolonged immersive DMT psychedelic experience. Frontiers in pharmacology, 7, 205781. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00211

Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. Basic Books.

Gethin, R. (1998). The Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press.

Gibson, J. J. (1986). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Psychology Press.

Giordano, J., & Engebretson, J. (2006). Neural and cognitive basis of spiritual experience: Biopsychosocial and ethical implications for clinical medicine. Explore, 2(3), 216-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2006.02.002

Glass‐Coffin, B. (2010). Anthropology, shamanism, and alternate ways of knowing-Being in the world: One anthro-pologist's journey of discovery and transformation. Anthropology and Humanism, 35(2), 204-217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1409.2010.01067.x

Glass‐Coffin, B., & Kiiskeentum. (2012). The Future of a Discipline: Considering the Ontological/Methodological Future of the Anthropology of Consciousness, Part IV: Ontological Relativism or Ontological Relevance: An Essay in Honor of Michael Harner. Anthropology of Consciousness, 23(2), 113-126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-3537.2012.01062.x

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D. (2023b). Phenomenological Aspects of Non-Ordinary States of Consciousness: New Perspec-tives for Cognitive Science and Welfare Technology Research. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Microdosing (ICM 2023), 10.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., & Hernandez-Carrion, J.R. (2018). Self-Organized Linguistic Systems: From traditional AI to bottom-up generative processes. Futures,103, 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2018.03.003

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., & Kostakis, V. (2015). Information literacy and peer-to-peer infrastructures: An autopoietic perspective. Telematics and Informatics, 32(4), 586-593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2015.01.001

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., & Perez-Carmona, M. (2023). Psychedelics and Artificial Intelligence: Integrating AI-Powered Analysis in Phenomenological Mental Health Studies. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/9rnj8

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., & Hernández Carrión, J.R. (2014). A bacterial-based algorithm to simulate complex adaptive systems. From Animals to Animats 13: 13th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08864-8_24

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D., & Hernández Carrión, J.R. (2015). Decentralization and heterogeneity in complex adaptive systems. Kybernetes, 44(6/7), 1082-1093. https://doi.org/10.1108/K-01-2015-0030

Goodman, F. D. (1990). Where the Spirits Ride the Wind: Trance Journeys and Other Ecstatic Experiences. Indiana University Press.

Govinda, L. A. (1969). Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. Weiser Books.

Graham, O. J., Saucedo, G. R., & Politi, M. (2023). Experiences of listening to icaros during ayahuasca ceremonies at centro takiwasi: an interpretive phenomenological analysis. Anthropology of Consciousness, 34(1), 35-67. https://doi.org/10.1111/anoc.12170

Gray, J. A. (1995). The contents of consciousness: A neuropsychological conjecture. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18(4), 659-676. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00040395

Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., Johnson, M. W., McCann, U. D., & Jesse, R. (2008). Mystical-type experiences occa-sioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22(6), 621-632. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881108094300

Griffiths, R. R., Richards, W. A., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology, 187(3), 268-283; discussion 284-292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00213-006-0457-5

Grof, C., & Grof, S. (2017). Spiritual emergency: The understanding and treatment of transpersonal crises. Interna-tional Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 36(2), 5.

https://doi.org/10.24972/ijts.2017.36.2.30

Grof, S. (1996). Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. Souvenir Press.

Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the Brain: Birth, Death, and Transcendence in Psychotherapy. State University of New York Press.

Haraway, D. 2016. Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv11cw25q

Haraway, D. (2013). A cyborg manifesto: Science, technology, and socialist-feminism in the late twentieth century. In The transgender studies reader (pp. 103-118). Routledge.

Harner, M. (1973). Hallucinogens and Shamanism. Oxford University Press.

Harner, M. (1980). The Way of the Shaman: A Guide to Power and Healing. Harper & Row.

Hart, T. (2003). The Secret Spiritual World of Children. Paperback.

Hartogsohn, I. (2013). The American Trip: Set, setting, and psychedelics in 20th century psychology. MAPS Bulletin Special Edition, 23(1), 6-9.

Heidegger, M. (1927). Being and Time. Harper & Row.

Hoffman, D. D., Prakash, C., & Prentner, R. (2023). Fusions of consciousness. Entropy, 25(1), 129. https://doi.org/10.3390/e25010129

Husserl, E. (1931). Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. W. R. Boyce Gibson (Trans.). Routledge.

Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/1881.001.0001

Ingold, T. (2000). The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. Routledge.

Jack, A., & Roepstorff, A. (2002). Introspection and cognitive brain mapping: from stimulus-response to script-report. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(8), 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01941-1

Jackson, M. (1996). Things As They Are: New Directions in Phenomenological Anthropology. Indiana University Press.

James, W. (1902). The Varieties of Religious Experience. Longmans, Green & Co. https://doi.org/10.1037/10004-000

Kastrup, B. (2019). Analytic Idealism: A consciousness-only ontology.

Katz, R. (1993). The Straight Path: A Story of Healing and Transformation in Fiji. Da Capo Press.

Katz, R. (1982). Boiling energy: Community healing among the Kalahari Kung. Harvard University Press.

Kauffman, S. (1993). The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford University Press.https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195079517.001.0001

Koch, C. (2004). The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach. Roberts & Company.

Kora, P., Meenakshi, K., Swaraja, K., Rajani, A., & Raju, M. S. (2021). EEG based interpretation of human brain activ-ity during yoga and meditation using machine learning: A systematic review. Complementary therapies in clin-ical practice, 43, 101329. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101329

Krippner, S. (2000). The epistemology and technologies of shamanic states of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7(11-12), 93-118.

Quay, J. (2016). Learning phenomenology with Heidegger: Experiencing the phenomenological 'starting point'as the beginning of phenomenological research. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 48(5), 484-497. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2015.1035632

Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics, and Culture in Everyday Life. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609268

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355

Lazzarelli, A. (2023). A Cultural Phenomenology of Qigong: Qi Experience and the Learning of a Somatic Mode of Attention. Anthropology of Consciousness, 34(1), 97-129.

https://doi.org/10.1111/anoc.12158

Lebedev, M. A., & Nicolelis, M. A. L. (2006). Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future. Trends in Neurosci-ences, 29(9), 536-546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2006.07.004

LeVasseur, J. J. (2003). The problem of bracketing in phenomenology. Qualitative health research, 13(3), 408-420. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732302250337

López-Pavillard, S. (2018). Chamanes, ayahuasca y sanación. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC).

Luna, L. E. (1986). Vegetalismo: shamanism among the mestizo population of the Peruvian Amazon (Vol. 27). Stock-holm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.

Lutz, A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Meditation and the Neuroscience of Consciousness: An Introduction. En P. D. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch & E. Thompson (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness (pp. 499-551). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816789.020

https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816789.020

Malafouris, L. (2013). How Things Shape the Mind: A Theory of Material Engagement. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9476.001.0001

Malinowski, B. (1922). Argonauts of the western Pacific. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Mancuso, S., & Viola, A. (2015). Brilliant green: the surprising history and science of plant intelligence. Island Press.

Marder, M. (2012). Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence. Plant signaling & behavior, 7(11), 1365-1372. https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.21954

Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. Van Nostrand.

Maslow, A. H. (1964). Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1980). Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. D. Reidel Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-8947-4

McKenna, D. (2019). Plant Intelligence: What the Plants are Telling Us. ICEERS - AYA2019 Conference. https://www.iceers.org/plant-intelligence-what-the-plants-are-telling-us/

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of Perception Routledge & Kegan Paul. London, UK, 182.

Michel, M. (2019). Consciousness Science Underdetermined: A Short History of Endless Debates. Ergo, an Open Access Journal of Philosophy, 6(28). https://doi.org/10.3998/ergo.12405314.0006.028

Mitchell, M. (2009). Complexity: A Guided Tour. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780195124415.001.0001

Morris, B. (2006). Religion and anthropology: A critical introduction. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511814419

Muller-Ortega, P. E. (1997). The Triadic Heart of Śiva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir. State University of New York Press.

Narby, J., & Cronin, J. P. (1998). The cosmic serpent: DNA and the origins of knowledge (p. 272). New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Naranjo, C. (1978). Gestalt therapy as a transpersonal approach. Gestalt Journal, 1(2), 75-81.

Newberg, A., & D'Aquili, E. G. (2008). Why God won't go away: Brain science and the biology of belief. Ballantine Books.

Noë, A., & Thompson, E. (2004). Are there neural correlates of consciousness? Journal of Consciousness studies, 11(1), 3-28.

Parlett, M. (1991). Reflections on field theory. British Gestalt Journal, 1(2), 69-81. https://doi.org/10.53667/PMAP3094

Paranjpe, A. C. (2013). The concept of dharma: Classical meaning, common misconceptions and implications for psy-chology. Psychology and Developing Societies, 25(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971333613477302

Perls, F., Hefferline, G., & Goodman, P. (1951). Gestalt therapy. New York, 64(7), 19-313.

Persinger, M. A. (1983). Religious and mystical experiences as artifacts of temporal lobe function: A general hypothe-sis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57(3), 1255-1262.https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1983.57.3f.1255

Putnam, H. (1967). Psychological predicates. En W. H. Capitan & D. D. Merrill (Eds.), Art, Mind, and Religion (pp. 37-48). University of Pittsburgh Press.https://doi.org/10.2307/jj.6380610.6

P2P Observatory for Ethnophenomenological Studies. (2024). http://p2p.eiocr.com

Ramakrishnan, A., Ifft, P. J., Pais-Vieira, M., Byun, Y. W., Zhuang, K. Z., Lebedev, M. A., & Nicolelis, M. A. L. (2015). Computing arm movements with a monkey brainet. Scientific Reports, 5, 10767. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep10767

Rampolla, J., & Kipper, G. (2012). Augmented reality: An emerging technologies guide to AR. Elsevier.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. (1975). The shaman and the jaguar: A study of narcotic drugs among the Indians of Colombia. Temple University Press.

Rich, G. J. (1999). Erika Bourguignon: A portrait of the anthropology of consciousness. Anthropology of Conscious-ness, 10(2‐3), 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1525/ac.1999.10.2-3.50

Riva, G., Banos, R. M., Botella, C., Mantovani, F., & Gaggioli, A. (2016). Transforming experience: The potential of augmented reality and virtual reality for enhancing personal and clinical change. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7, 164. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00164

Russell, S., & Norvig, P. (2016). Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (3rd ed.). Pearson.

Schwartz, S. A. (2021). Boulders in the Stream: The Lineage and Founding of the Society for the Anthropology of Consciousness. Anthropology of Consciousness, 32(2), 129-153. https://doi.org/10.1111/anoc.12140

Stoller, P. (1989). The Taste of Ethnographic Things: The Senses in Anthropology. University of Pennsylvania Press. https://doi.org/10.9783/9780812203141

Strauss, C., & Quinn, N. (1997). A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139167000

Tart, C. T. (1975). States of consciousness. New York: EP Dutton.

Tomasello, M. (1999). The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674044371

Thompson, E. (2010). Mind in life. Harvard University Press.

Trewavas, A. (2003). Aspects of plant intelligence. Annals of botany, 92(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg101

Travis, F. T. (2021). Consciousness is primary: Science of consciousness for the 21st century. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 13(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijps.v13n1p1

Turing, A. M. (1950). Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind, LIX(236), 433-460. https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433

Turner, V., Abrahams, R., & Harris, A. (2017). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315134666

Shear, J., & Varela, F. J. (Eds.). (1999). The view from within: First-person approaches to the study of consciousness. Imprint Academic.

Underhill, E. (1911). Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man's Spiritual Consciousness (New York. NY, US: Methuen.

Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/6730.001.0001

Walker, T. C. (2010). The perils of paradigm mentalities: Revisiting Kuhn, Lakatos, and Popper. Perspectives on Poli-tics, 8(2), 433-451. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592710001180

Walsh, R. (2001). Shamanic experiences: A developmental analysis. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41(3), 31-52.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167801413004

Warwick, K. (2010). Implications and consequences of robots with biological brains. Ethics and Information Technolo-gy, 12(3), 223-234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-010-9218-6

White, D. G. (2000). Tantra in Practice. Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691190457

Whitehead, C. (2000). The Anthropology of Consciousness: Keeping Body and Soul Together? Society for Anthropo-logical Consciousness, Tucson, 5-9 April 2000. Anthropology Today, 16(4), 20-22.

Williams, S. (2007). Meditations on anthropology without an object: Boulder hopping in streams of consciousness. Anthropology of Consciousness, 18(1), 65-106. https://doi.org/10.1525/ac.2007.18.1.65

Winkelman, M. J. (2010). Shamanism: A biopsychosocial paradigm of consciousness and healing. Bloomsbury Pub-lishing USA. https://doi.org/10.5040/9798216014133

Zimmer, H. (1951). Philosophies of India, ed. J. Campbell. Princeton: Bollingen Series, Princeton University Press.

Descargas

Publicado

2024-06-03

Número

Sección

Articulos miscelánaeos

Cómo citar

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, D. (2024). La praxis etnofenomenológica: Una apropiación metodológica para el estudio de los estados no ordinarios de conciencia en el ámbito de las ciencias cognitivas. Antropología Experimental, 24, 303-319. https://doi.org/10.17561/rae.v24.8463

Artículos similares

1-10 de 644

También puede Iniciar una búsqueda de similitud avanzada para este artículo.