How and when is self-efficacy related to entrepreneurial intentions: exploring the role of entrepreneurial outcome expectations and subjective norms

  • Susana Santos Rowan University, New Jersey
  • Eric W. Liguori Rowan University, New Jersey


This study investigates how and when general self-efficacy is related to entrepreneurial intentions. We propose that entrepreneurial outcome expectations function as a mediator in this relationship, while subjective norms act as a moderator. Using a sample of 1052 students from U.S. Public Universities, we tested a moderated mediation model. Results showed that general self-efficacy is positively related to entrepreneurial intentions through the mediating effect of entrepreneurial outcome expectations, and that this relationship is significantly positive for individuals with favourable subjective norms towards entrepreneurship, while significantly negative for individuals with less favourable subjective norms. These findings contribute to literatures on entrepreneurial intentions.


Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, self-efficacy, entrepreneurial outcome expectations, subjective norms


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