The industry of testing and mutual recognition in southern Europe

Joaquin Manuel Cruz


Following the publication of the Common European Framework of Reference, Spain’s central government has been unable to unify common policies for foreign language requirements in Spanish Higher Education. Language requirements are in Spain both partially unregulated and deemed compulsory to finish Higher education degrees. In the absence of national policies, different areas of the country have implemented different policies in this respect and, inevitably, Spanish universities have developed their own internal legislation, high-quality suites of language tests and mutual recognition systems. These vary greatly from university to university, and are now competing in the industry of testing at both a national and a global level. The universities in Andalusia, one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain, have been able to agree on a set of unified criteria which favors mutual recognition of language certifications for +13K candidates on a yearly basis and have driven policy makers’ attention to their network, which is being regulated a posteriori


Industry of testing; mutual recognition; Spain; Andalusia; CEFR; reliability; validity; fairness

Full Text:



Bachman, Lyle. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Bernat, Eva and Gvozdenko, Inna. “Beliefs about Language Learning: Current Knowledge, Pedagogical Implications, and New Research Directions.” Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 9.1 (2006): 1-13.

Bologna Declaration. 1999. Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999. Web. 25 May 2015. .

Brown, H. Douglas. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1980.

CC. 2011. Convenio de colaboración entre la Universidad de Almería, la Universidad de Cádiz, la Universidad de Córdoba, la Universidad de Granada, la Universidad de Huelva, la Universidad de Jaén, la Universidad de Málaga, la Universidad Pablo de Olavide y la Universidad de Sevilla, para la acreditación de lenguas extranjeras. Web. 25 May 2015. .

Council of Europe 2001. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crookes, Graham and Richard W. Schmidt. “Motivation: Reopening the Research Agenda.” Language Learning 41.4 (1991): 469-512.

CRUE. “Propuestas sobre la acreditación de idiomas.” Web. 25 May 2015

Ellis, Rod. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Extra, Guus and Kutlay Yağmur. Eds. Language Rich Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2012. Web. 25 May 2015. .

Halback, Ana and Lázaro, Alberto. “La acreditación del nivel de lengua inglesa en las universidades españolas: Actualización 2015.” Madrid: British Council, 2015. Web. 25 May 2015. .

Hawkey, Roger and Michael Milanovic. Cambridge English Exams. The First Hundred Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Lisbon Convention. Council of Europe & UNESCO. Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region. Lisbon, 11.04.1997. CETS 165. Web. 25 May 2015. .

MCU. Magna Charta Universitatum (1988). Web. 25 May 2015 .

PAI. Propuestas sobre la acreditación de idiomas. Informe elaborado por la “Comisión para el análisis y estudio de la acreditación y formación en idiomas” de la CRUE (Conferencia de Rectores de las Universidades Españolas) y aprobado en la Asamblea General de la CRUE (Santander, 8 de septiembre de 2011). Web. 25 May 2015. .

Real Decreto 1393/2007. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. “Real Decreto 1393/2007, de 29 de octubre, por el que se establece la ordenación de las enseñanzas universitarias oficiales”. BOE (Boletín Oficial del Estado) 260 (30 Oct. 2007): 44037–44048. Web. 25 May 2015. .

Skinner, Burrhus Frederic. Verbal Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1992 (1957).

Sorbonne Declaration. 1998. Sorbonne Joint Declaration. Joint Declaration on Harmonisation of the Architecture of the European Higher Education System by the four Ministers in charge for France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. Paris, the Sorbonne, May 25 1998. Web 25 May 2015 .

Spolsky, Bernard. Measured Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. PMid:7722104



  • There are currently no refbacks.