Cultural references in the English subtitling of the Cuban film Strawberry and Chocolate

Yessie Milag Nodal


The translation process of cultural references in audiovisual texts poses one of the greatest challenges that translators must face. In this regard, the purpose of this article is to analyze the main types or solutions employed to translate cultural references in the English subtitling of the Cuban film Strawberry and Chocolate (1993). A brief overview concerning the definition and classification of cultural references will be presented. Afterwards, the possible translation solutions employed to deal successfully with these cultural elements in our corpus will be analyzed. With regard to the results, the most frequent solution was communicative translation, followed by foreignizing solutions, such as calque or exoticism. Moreover, as could be proved, the type of cultural reference has influenced on the selection of translation solution.


translation; translation strategies; cultural references; subtitling; domestication; foreignization


Chaves, María J. La traducción cinematográfica. El doblaje. Huelva: Universidad de Huelva, 1999.

Díaz Cintas, Jorge. Teoría y práctica de la subtitulación inglés/español. Barcelona: Ariel, 2003.

Díaz Cintas, Jorge y Aline Remael. Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling. Manchester: St. Jerome. 2007.

Franco Aixelá, Javier. “Culture-Specific Items in Translation”. Translation, Power, Subversion. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1996. 52-77.

González Davis, Maria and Christopher Scott-Tennent. “A problem-Solving and Student-Centred Approach to the Translation of Cultural References”. Meta 50.1 (2005): 160-179.

Haywood, Louse, Michael Thompson y Sándor Hervey. Thinking Spanish Translation. A Course in Translation Method: Spanish to English. Londres y Nueva York: Routledge, 2009.

Nedergaard-Larsen, Birgit. “Culture-bound Problems in Translation”. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology. 2 (1993): 207-241.

Nida, Eugene y Charles R. Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 1982. PMCid:PMC351293

Ortiz, Fernando. Contrapunteo cubano del tabaco y el azúcar. La Habana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1983.

Padrón, Frank. Diferente: Cine y diversidad sexual. La Habana: Ediciones ICAIC, 2014.

Pedersen, Jan. Subtitling Norms for Television: An Exploration Focusing on Extralinguistic Cultural References. Amsterdam y Filadelfia: John Benjamins, 2011.

Venuti, Lawrence. The Translator’s Invisibility: A history of Translation. Londres y Nueva York: Routledge, 1995.



  • There are currently no refbacks.