Internacionalización de los servicios: el caso de los KIS (Knowledge Intensive Services). ¿Son aplicables los modelos tradicionales?

Palabras clave: Servicios, servicios intensivos en conocimiento, internacionalización

Resumen

La literatura sobre la internacionalización de las empresas, tradicionalmente, se ha aplicado a los bienes puesto que han sido más susceptibles a las transacciones internacionales. Esto se ha debido a que los servicios han tenido unas características muy distintas a la de los bienes que les han impedido, en algunos casos, adoptar ciertas formas de internacionalización. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha producido algunos cambios en la naturaleza de los servicios que, junto con la aparición de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y de distintas fórmulas de entrada a otros países, entre otros, le han facilitado su expansión en el exterior. En este contexto, el objetivo del trabajo es analizar en qué medida se adaptan algunas de las teorías tradicionales sobre internacionalización a los servicios y cuáles serían los cambios que se habrían de plantear para justificar la adaptabilidad de dichas teorías a los servicios y, especialmente, a los servicios intensivos en conocimiento.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Clara Belén Martos Martínez, Universidad de Jaén

Profesora Departamento de Economía

Doctora en Economía por la Universidad de Jaén

Citas

Abdelzaher, D. M. (2012): “The impact of professional service firms expansion challenges on internationalization processes and performance”, The Service Industries Journal, vol. 32, nº .10, pp. 1721-1738.

Abdul-Aziz, A.R. (1995): “Examination of the eclectic paradigm as applied to international contracting with emphasis on the internalization dimension”, Engineering, Construc-tion and Architectural Management, vol. 2, nº 2, pp. 105-120.

Agarwal, S. y Ramaswami, S. N. (1992): “Choice of foreign market entry mode: impact of ownership, location and internalization factors”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, nº 1, pp. 1-27.

Aharoni, Y. (1966): The Foreign Investment Decision Process, In P. Buclkey y N.Ghauri (Eds.), International Business Strategy: Theory and Practice. Wiley.

Alexander, N. y Myers, H. (2000): “The retail internationalization process”, International Marketing Review, vol. 17, nº (4/5), pp. 334-353.

Amaro D.S, J., Ohlhausen, P. y Bucher, M. (2008): “Aligning innovation and project man-agement by the value index”, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, vol. 4, nº 4, pp. 413-430.

Bateson, G. (1979): Why we need service marketing?, in Ferrel, O.C., Brown, S.W. and Lamb, C.W. (Eds), Conceptual and Theoretical Developments in Marketing, American Mar-keting Association, Chicago, IL.

Berry, L.L. (1980): “Service marketing is different”, Business, vol. 30, nº 3, pp. 24-9.

Bhagwati, J. (1988): “Importance du commerce international des services pour developmment economique”, L´Europe Face a la Nouvelle Economic de Services, pp. 20-22.

Bhagwati, J., Panagariya, A. y Srinivasan, T. N. (2004): “The muddles over outsourcing”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 18, nº 4, pp. 93-114.

Boddewyn, J. J., Halbrich, M. B. y Perry, A. (1986): “Service multinationals: conceptualiza-tion, measurement and theory”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 17, nº 3, pp. 41-57.

Bouquet, C., Hebert, L. y Delios, A. (2004): “Foreign expansion in service industries: separa-bility and human capital intensity”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 57, nº 1, pp. 35-46.

Brouthers, K. D. y Brouthers, L. E. (2003): “Why service and manufacturing entry mode choices differ: the influence of transaction cost factors, risk and trust”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 40, nº 5, pp. 1179-1204.

Brouthers, K. D. y Nakos, G. (2004): “SME entry mode choice and performance: a transac-tion cost perspective”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 28, nº 3, pp. 229-247.

Brouthers, K. D., Brouthers, L. E. y Werner, S. (1996): “Dunning's eclectic theory and the smaller firm: the impact of ownership and locational advantages on the choice of en-try-modes in the computer software industry”, International Business Review, vol. 5, nº 4, pp. 377-394.

Bryson, J. R., Daniels, P. W. y Warf, B. (2004): Service worlds: people, organisations and technologies, Psychology Press.

Buckley, P.J., Pass, C.L. y Prescott, K. (1992): “The internationalization of service firms: a comparison with the manufacturing sector”, Scandinavian International Business Re-view, vol. 1, nº 1, pp. 39-56.

Campbell, A. J. y Verbeke, A. (1994): “The globalization of service multinationals”, Long Range Planning, vol. 27, nº 2, pp. 95-102.

Carman, J. M. y Langeard, E. (1980): “Growth strategies for service firms”, Strategic Man-agement Journal, vol. 1 nº 1, pp. 7-22.

Casson, M. (1982): The entrepreneur: An economic theory. Rowman y Littlefield.

Cole, C. R., Lee, R. B. y McCullough, K. A. (2007): “A test of the eclectic paradigm: Evi-dence from the US reinsurance market”, Journal of Risk and Insurance, vol. 74, nº 2, pp. 493-522.

Contractor, F.J., Kundu, S.K. y Hsu, C.C. (2003): “A three-stage theory of international ex-pansion: the link between multinationality and performance in the service sector”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 34, nº 1, pp. 5-18.

Davidson, W.H. (1980): “The location of foreign direct investment activity: country charac-teristics and experience effects”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 11, nº 2, pp. 9-22.

Dicken, P. (2003): Global shift: Reshaping the global economic map in the 21st century. Sage, Londres.

Donnelly, J.H. (1976): “Marketing intermediaries in channels of distribution for services”, The Journal of Marketing, vol. 40, nº 1, pp. 55-57.

Dosi, G. (1988): The nature of the innovative proces, in G. Dosi, C. Freeman, R. Nelson, G. Silverberg and L. Soete (eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory, London and Pinter New York Publishers, pp. 221-238.

Dunning, J. H. (1973): “The determinants of international production”, Oxford Economic Pa-pers, vol. 25, nº 3, pp. 289-336.

Dunning J. H. (1977): Trade location of economic activity and the multinational enterprise: a search for an eclectic approach, in Ohlin, B., Hesselbom, P. O .and Wiskma, P.J.(ed.), The International Allocation of Economic Activity, London, Macmillan.

Dunning, J. H. (1988): “The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19, nº 1, pp. 1-31.

Dunning, J. H. (1993): Trade, location of economic activity and the multinational enterprise: a search for an eclectic approach, in E. Dunning (ed.) The theory of transnational corpo-rations, United Nations Library on Transnational Corporations, vol. 3, pp. 183-218, Routledge London and New York.

Dunning, J. H. (1997): “The european internal market programme and inbound foreign direct investment”, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 35, nº 2, June 1997.

Dunning, J. y Kundu, S.K. (1995): “The internationalization of the hotel industry: some new findings from a field study”, Management International Review, vol. 35, nº 2, pp. 101-133.

Edvardsson, B. Edvinsson, L. y Nystrom, H. (1993): “Internationalization in service compa-nies”, Service Industries Journal, vol. 13, nº 1, pp. 80-97.

Eiglier, P. y Langeard, E. (1976): “Principes politiques de marketing pour les enterprises de service, Working paper, Institute d’administration des enterprises, Université d’AixMarseille, December.

Ekeledo, I. y Sivakumar, K. (2004): “International market entry mode strategies of manufac-turing firms and service firms: A resource-based perspective”, International Marketing Review, vol. 21, nº 1, pp. 68-101.

Erramilli, M.K. (1990): “Entry mode choice in service industries”, International Marketing Review, vol. 5, nº 7, pp. 50-62.

Erramilli, M. K. y Rao, C. P. (1993): “Service firms international entry-mode choice: a modi-fied transaction-cost analysis approach”, The Journal of Marketing, pp. 19-38, https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299305700302.

Evangelista, R. y Sirilli, G. (1995): “Measuring innovation in services”, Research Evaluation, vol. 5, nº 3, pp.207-215.

Faulconbridge, J. R. y Beaverstock, J. (2008): Geographies of inter-national business travel in the professional service economy, in mobility and technology in the workplace, ed. D. Hislop. MiltonPark, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 87-102

Fladmoe-Lindquist, K. y Jacque, L. L. (1995): “Control modes in international service opera-tions: The propensity to franchise”, Management Science, vol. 41, nº 7, pp. 1238-1249.

Gatignon, H. y Anderson, E. (1988): “The multinational corporation's degree of control over foreign subsidiaries: An empirical test of a transaction cost explanation”, Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, pp. 305-336.

Grönroos, C. (1999): “Internationalization strategies for services”, Journal of Services Market-ing, vol. 13, nº 4/5, pp. 290-297.

Grosse, R. (1996): “International technology transfer in services”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 27, nº 4, pp.781-800.

Grubel, H. (1987): “All traded services are embodied in materials or people”, The World Economy, vol. 10, nº 3, pp. 319-330.

Gummesson, E. (1987): “The new marketing developing long-term interactive relationships”, Long Range Planning, vol. 20, nº 4, pp. 10-20.

Gummesson, E. (2000): Qualitative methods in management, 2nd rev. ed., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hamel, G. y Prahalad, C.K. (1994): Competing for the future, Massachusetts, Harvard Busi-ness School Press.

Hertog, P. (2000): “Knowledge-intensive business services as co-producers of innovation”, International Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 4, nº 4, pp. 491-528.

Horst, T. O.(1972): “Firm and industry determinants of the decision to invest abroad: an em-pirical study”, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 54, nº 3, pp. 258-266.

Hymer, S. (1960): The international operations of national firms: a study of direct investment, Doctoral dissertation, Mass. Institute of Technology.

Javalgi, R. G. y Martin, C. L. (2007): “Internationalization of services: identifying the build-ing-blocks for future research”, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 21, nº 6, pp.391-397.

Javalgi, R. R. G., Gross, A. C., Joseph, W. B. y Granot, E. (2011): “Assessing competitive advantage of emerging markets in knowledge intensive business services”, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, vol. 26, nº 3, pp. 171-180.

Javalgi, R.G, Griffith, D.A. y White, D.S. (2003): “An empirical examination of factors influ-encing the internationalization of service firms”, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 17, nº 2, pp. 185-201.

Katrishen, F. A. y Scordis, N. A. (1998): “Economies of scale in services: a study of multina-tional insurers”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 29, nº 2, pp. 305-323.

Kim, W.C. y Hwang, P. (1992): “Global strategy and multinationals entry mode choice”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, nº 1, pp. 29-53.

Kimes, S.E. y Chase, R.B. (1998): “The strategic levers of yield management”, Journal of Service Research, vol. 1, nº 2, pp. 156-166.

Lado, A. A., Boyd, N. G. y Wright, P. (1992): “A competency-based model of sustainable competitive advantage: toward a conceptual integration”, Journal of Management, vol. 18, nº 1, pp. 77-91.

Li, J. y Guisinger, S. (1992): “The globalization of service multinationals in the" triad" regions: Japan, Western Europe and North America”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 23, nº 4, pp. 675-696.

Lindsay, V., Chadee, D., Mattsson, J., Johnston, R. y Millett, B. (2003): “Relationships, the role of individuals and knowledge flows in the internationalisation of service firms”, International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 14, nº 1, pp. 7-35.

Lommelen, T. y Matthyssens, P. (2005): “The internationalization process of service provid-ers: a literature review”, Advances in International Marketing, vol. 15, nº 1, pp. 95-117.

Lovelock, C. y Gummesson, E. (2004): “Whither service marketing? in search of a new para-digm and fresh perspective”, Journal of Service Research, vol. 7, nº 1, pp. 20-41.

Majkgård, A., y Sharma, D. D. (1998): “Client-following and market-seeking strategies in the internationalization of service firms”, Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, vol. 4, nº 3, pp. 1-41.

Markusen, J. R. (1989): ”Trade in producer services and in other specialized intermediate in-puts”, The American Economic Review, vol. 79, nº 1, pp. 85-95.

Martos-Martínez, C. (2017): Las empresas Born Global de servicios intensivos en conocimien-to: un estudio de casos. Born Global firms in Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS): A study of cases, Tesis doctoral, Universidad de Jaén.

Masten, S. E., Meehan, J. W. y Snyder, E. A. (1991): “The costs of organization”, Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, vol. 7, nº 1, pp. 1-25.

McDougall, G.H. y Snetsinger, D.W. (1990): “The intangibility of services: measurement and competitive perspectives”, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 4, nº 4, pp. 27-40.

Miozzo, M. y Soete, L. (2001): “Internationalization of services: a technological perspective”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 67, nº 2, pp. 159-185.

Morgan, G. (2001): “Transnational communities and business systems”, Global Networks, vol. 1, nº 2, pp. 113-130.

Muñoz-Guarasa, M. (1999): La inversión directa extranjera en España: Factores determinan-tes. Biblioteca Civitas Economía y Empresa. Colección Economía, Madrid.

Muñoz-Guarasa, M. (2001): “La inversión directa extranjera en las actividades de servicios de la economía española”, Información Comercial Española, nº 794, pp. 123-135.

Muñoz-Guarasa, M. (2005): “La internacionalización de los servicios en los países desarrolla-dos”, Comercio Exterior, vol. 55, nº 8 agosto, pp. 692-700.

Muñoz-Guarasa, M. y Alcalá-Olid, F. (2007): “Dinámica en el proceso de internacionalización de los servicios: el caso español”, Boletín económico de ICE, Información Comercial Española, nº 2924, pp. 41-60.

Murray, J. Y. y Kotabe, M. (1999): “Sourcing strategies of US service companies: A modified transaction-cost analysis”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 20, nº 9, pp. 791-809.

Narula, R. (2014): Globalization and technology: Interdependence, innovation systems and industrial policy. John Wiley y Sons.

Nelson, R. R. y Winter, S. G. (1982): “The Schumpeterian trade off revisited”, The American Economic Review, vol. 72, nº 1, pp. 114-132.

Nonaka, I. y Takeuchi, H. (1995): The knowledge-creating company, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Oliva, E.J.D. (2005): “Del servicio y sus modelos de medición”, Innovar: Revista de Ciencias Administrativas y Sociales, vol. 15, nº 25, pp. 64-80.

Onkvisit, S. y Shaw, J.J. (1991): “Is services marketing really different”, Journal of Profes-sional Services Marketing, vol. 7, nº 2, pp. 3-17.

Pla-Barber, J. (2001): “The internationalization of foreign distribution and production activi-ties. New empirical evidence from Spain”, International Business Review, vol. 10, nº 4, pp. 455-474.

Poppo, L. y Zender, T., (1998): “Testing alternate theories of the firm: transaction cost, knowledge-based, and measurement explanations for make-or-buy decisions in infor-mation services”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, nº 9, pp. 853-877.

Rathmell, J.M. (1966): “What is meant by services?”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 30, nº 4, pp. 32-36.

Rialp, A. (1997): Las fases iniciales del proceso de internacionalización de las empresas indus-triales catalanas: una aproximación empírica, Tesis doctoral. Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona.

Rindfleisch, A. y Heide, J. B. (1997): “Transaction cost analysis: past, present, and future applications”, The Journal of Marketing, vol. 61, nº 4, pp. 30-54, https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299706100403.

Roberts, J. (1999): “The internationalization of business service firms: a stages approach”, Service Industries Journal, vol. 19, nº 4, pp. 68-88.

Root, F.R. y Ahmed, A.A. (1978): “The influence of policy instruments on manufacturing direct foreign investment in developing countries”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 9, nº 3, pp. 81-94.

Rugman, A. M. y Verbeke, A. (2004): “A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 35, nº 1, pp. 3-18.

Rugman, A. M. y Verbeke, A. (2008): “A new perspective on the regional and global strate-gies of multinational services firms”, Management International Review, vol. 48, nº 4, pp. 397-411.

Rugman, A.M. (1983): “The comparative performance of U.S. and europea MNE 1970-1979”, Management International Review, vol. 23, nº 4, pp. 761-771.

Sampson, G. y Snape, R. (1985): “Identifying the issue in trade in services”, The World Economy, vol. 8, nº 2, pp. 171-182.

Say, J.B. (1836): A Treatise on Political Economy, August M. Kelley, New York, NY.

Segebarth, K. (1990): “Some aspects of the international trade in services: an empirical ap-proach”, The Service Industries Journal, nº 10, pp. 266-283, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02642069000000030.

Sharma, D. D. y Johanson, J. (1987): “Technical consultancy in internationalization”, Interna-tional Marketing Review, vol. 4, nº 4 Winter, pp. 20-29.

Singh, N. y Kundu, S. (2002): “Explaining the growth of e-commerce corporations (ECCs): an extension and application of the eclectic paradigm”, Journal of International Busi-ness Studies, vol. 33, nº 4, pp. 679-697.

Smedlund, A. y Toivonen, M. (2007): “The role of KIBS in the IC development of regional clusters”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 8, nº 1, pp. 159-170.

Strambach, S. (1998): Knowledge-intensive business services as an element of learning re-gions-the case of Baden-Wurttemberg. In ERSA conference papers European Region-al Science Association, 98, pp. 355.

Tallman, S. B. (1991): “Strategic management models and resource‐based strategies among MNEs in a host market”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 12, nº 1, pp. 69-82.

Tatoglu, E. y Glaister, K. W. (1998): Western MNCs' FDI in Turkey: An analysis of location specific factors, Management International Review, vol. 38, nº 2, pp. 133-159.

Teece, D., Pisano, G. y Shuen, A. (1997): “Dynamic capabilities and strategic management”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 18, nº 7, pp. 509-533.

Terpstra, V. y Yu, C.M. (1988): “Determinants of foreign investment of us advertising agen-cies”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 19, nº 1, pp. 33-46.

Van Marrewijk, C., Stibora, J., De Vaal, A. y Viaene, J. M. (1997): “Producer services, com-parative advantage and international trade patterns”, Journal of International Econom-ics, vol. 42, nº 1, pp. 195-220.

Vandermerwe, S. y Chadwick, M. (1989): “The Internationalization of Services”, Service In-dustries Journal, vol. 9, nº 1, pp. 79-93.

Vargo, S. L. y Lusch, R. F. (2004): “The four service marketing myths remnants of a goods-based, manufacturing model”, Journal of Service Research, vol. 6, nº 4, pp. 324-335.

Walker, G. y Poppo, L. (1991): “Profit centers, single-source suppliers and transaction costs”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 36, nº 1, pp. 66-87.

Weinstein, A.K. (1977): “Foreign investments by service firms: the case of multinational ad-vertising agencies”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 8, nº 1, pp. 83-91.

Williams, A. M. y Shaw, G. (2011): “Internationalization and innovation in tourism”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 38, nº 1, pp. 27-51.

Williamson, O.E. (1985): The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.

Windrum, P. y Tomlinson, M. (1999): “Knowledge-intensive services and international com-petitiveness: a four country comparison”, Technology Analysis and Strategic Manage-ment, vol. 11, nº 3, pp. 391-408.

Wolak, R., Kalafatis, S. y Harris, P. (1998): “An investigation into four characteristics of ser-vices”, Journal of Empirical Generalisations in Marketing Science, vol. 3, nº 2, pp. 22-43.

Yannopoulos, G. N. (1983): The growth of transnational banking, in Casson M. (Ed.), The Growth of International Business, pp. 236-257, George Allen and Unwin, London.

Zeithaml, V., Parasuraman, A. y Berry, L. (1985): “Problems and strategies in services mar-keting”, The Journal of Marketing, pp. 33-46, https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298504900203.

Zeithaml, V. Parasuraman, A. y Berry, L. (1990): Delivering quality service: balancing cus-tormer perceptions and expectations, The Free Press New York.

Publicado
2020-01-26
Cómo citar
Martos Martínez, C. B. (2020). Internacionalización de los servicios: el caso de los KIS (Knowledge Intensive Services). ¿Son aplicables los modelos tradicionales?. Revista De Estudios Empresariales. Segunda Época, 1(2), 157-176. https://doi.org/10.17561//ree.v2019n2.9